Glacial Advances in Asia, Europe, and North America

  • Sureyya H. KoseEmail author
Living reference work entry


Glacial-interglacial cycles (when glaciations advance to their maximum and retreat to their minimum) have occurred throughout much of the Earth’s climatic history (EPICA 2004). Presently, in the Holocene epoch, the Earth is experiencing an interglacial period of a glacial-interglacial cycle that began approximately 100,000–124,000 years ago within the Pleistocene epoch (Berger 2002). Glacial advances have not only covered vast expanses of Asia, Europe, and North America but the globe as early as 2.4–2.0 billion years ago within the Proterozoic eon, when the first global glaciation is said to have occurred (Strand 2012: 70). The most extensive glacial advance to have dominated the global landscape occurred between 800,000 and 600,000 years ago, with glaciers advancing to mid-latitudes (Strand 2012: 70). Giving this period the term “snowball earth,” researchers, through studies of oxygen isotopes gathered from deep-sea ocean sediments and ice cores, have determined further...

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Further Reading

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryCurtin UniversityPerthAustralia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Vivian Scheinsohn
    • 1
  1. 1.Instituto Nacional de Antropología y Pensamiento Latinoamericano-CONICET / Universidad de Buenos AiresBuenos AiresArgentina