Glacial Advances in Asia, Europe, and North America

  • Sureyya H. KoseEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-51726-1_2036-2

Introduction

Glacial-interglacial cycles (when glaciations advance to their maximum and retreat to their minimum) have occurred throughout much of the Earth’s climatic history (EPICA 2004). Presently, in the Holocene epoch, the Earth is experiencing an interglacial period of a glacial-interglacial cycle that began approximately 100,000–124,000 years ago within the Pleistocene epoch (Berger 2002). Glacial advances have not only covered vast expanses of Asia, Europe, and North America but the globe as early as 2.4–2.0 billion years ago within the Proterozoic eon, when the first global glaciation is said to have occurred (Strand 2012: 70). The most extensive glacial advance to have dominated the global landscape occurred between 800,000 and 600,000 years ago, with glaciers advancing to mid-latitudes (Strand 2012: 70). Giving this period the term “snowball earth,” researchers, through studies of oxygen isotopes gathered from deep-sea ocean sediments and ice cores, have determined further...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Berger, A. 1992. Astronomical theory of paleoclimates and the last glacial-interglacial cycle. Quaternary Science Reviews 11: 571–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Berger, W.H. 2002. Milankovitch theory supported. University of California San Diego. Available at: http://earthguide.ucsd.edu/virtualmuseum/climatechange2/03_1.shtml. Accessed 6 Dec 2012.
  3. Clark, P.U., and A.C. Mix. 2002. Ice sheets and sea level of the last glacial maximum. Quaternary Science Reviews 21: 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. CLIMAP. 1981. Seasonal reconstruction of the Earth’s surface at the Last Glacial Maximum. In Map series (Technical report MC 36). Boulder: Geological Society of America.Google Scholar
  5. Epica Community Members. 2004. Eight glacial cycles from an Antarctic ice core. Nature 429: 623–628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Grosswald, M.G., and T.J. Hughes. 2002. The Russian component of an Arctic ice sheet during the late glacial maximum. Quaternary Science Reviews 21: 1–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Huybers, P. 2011. Combined obliquity and precession pacing of late Pleistocene deglaciations. Nature 480: 229–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Mangerud, J., V. Astakhov, and J.I. Svendsen. 2002. The extent of the Barents-Kara ice sheet during the last glacial maximum. Quaternary Science Reviews 21: 111–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Marshak, S. 2009. Essentials of geology. 3rd ed. London: W.W Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  10. Mix, A.C., E. Bard, and R. Schneider. 2001. Environmental processes of the ice age: Land, ocean, glaciers (EPILOG). Quaternary Science Reviews 20: 627–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Rial, J.A. 2004. Earth’s orbital eccentricity and the rhythm of the Pleistocene ice ages: The concealed pacemaker. Global and Planetary Change 41: 81–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Schieber, J. 2007. Milankovich Cycles and Glaciation. Indiana University. Available at: http://www.indiana.edu/~geol105/images/gaia_chapter_4/milankovitch.htm. Accessed 24 Nov 2017.
  13. Strand, K. 2012. Global and continental – Scale glaciations on the Precambrian earth. Marine and Petroleum Geology 33: 69–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Further Reading

  1. Barnola, J.M., D. Raynaud, Y.S. Karotkevich, and C. Lorius. 1987. Vostok ice core provides 160,000 year record of atmospheric CO2. Nature 39 (6138): 408–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Grossman, E.L. 1987. Stable isotopes in modern Benthic foraminifera: A study of vital effect. Journal of Foraminiferal Research 17: 148–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryCurtin UniversityPerthAustralia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Vivian Scheinsohn
    • 1
  1. 1.Instituto Nacional de Antropología y Pensamiento Latinoamericano-CONICET / Universidad de Buenos AiresBuenos AiresArgentina