The estimation of the sex of a deceased person from an analysis of skeletal remains is one of the first procedures undertaken by anthropologists and osteologists as the sex of a person affects other analyses such as estimation of ancestry and age at death (e.g., Rowbotham 2016). In forensic cases, the estimation of sex is pivotal in contributing to the identification of unknown bodies as determining whether the individual is male or female halves the number of possible matches.
The sex of an individual is a biologically determined variable and differs from the gender of a person which is a social construct (e.g., Agarwal and Wesp 2017).
Age of the Individual
There has been considerable research undertaken on estimating the sex of an individual from the examination of juvenile skeletal remains (e.g., Bilfeld et al. 2013; Cunningham 2014). However, estimating the sex of individuals who have not reached puberty is limited because in most cases the...
- Agarwal, S.C., and J.K. Wesp, eds. 2017. Exploring sex and gender in bioarchaeology. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico.Google Scholar
- Cunningham, C.A. 2014. Anthropology: Skeleton; estimating juvenile age. In Encyclopedia of forensic science, 1–11. London: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Giles, E. 1970. Discriminant function sexing of the human skeleton. In Personal identification in mass disasters, ed. T.D. Stewart, 99–109. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institute.Google Scholar
- Iscan, M.Y., and P. Miller-Shaivitz. 1984. Discriminant function sexing of the tibia. Journal of Forensic Sciences 29 (4): 1087–1093.Google Scholar
- Krogman, W.M., and M.Y. Iscan. 1986. The human skeleton in forensic medicine. 2nd ed. Springfield: C.C. Thomas.Google Scholar
- Ortner, D.J. 2003. Identification of pathological conditions in human skeletal remains. 2nd ed. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Robinson, M.S., and M.A. Bidmos. 2009. The skull and humerus in the determination of sex: Reliability of discriminant function equations. Forensic Science International 186 (1–3): 86.e1–86.e5.Google Scholar
- Robinson, M.S., and M.A. Bidmos. 2011. An assessment of the accuracy of discriminant function equations of sex determination of the femur and tibia from a South African population. Forensic Science International 206 (1–3): 212.e1–212.e5.Google Scholar
- Rowbotham, S. 2016. Anthropological estimation of sex. In Handbook of forensic anthropology and archaeology, ed. S. Blau and D.H. Ubelaker, 2nd ed., 261–272. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Townsend, S.M. 2001. Sex determination of juvenile skeletal remains using ancient DNA: An evaluation of current molecular sex identification methods. MS dissertation, University of Auckland.Google Scholar
- Bass, W.M. 1995. Human osteology: A laboratory and field manual of the human skeleton, Special publication. Vol. 2. 4th ed. Columbia: Missouri Archaeological Society.Google Scholar
- Blau, S., and A.J. Hill. In press. Paediatric anthropology and odontology. In Handbook of pediatric forensic pathology, ed. R.W. Byard and K.A. Collins. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- Byers, S.N. 2005. Introduction to forensic anthropology. 2nd ed. Boston: Pearson.Google Scholar
- Hoppa, R.D., and C.M. FitzGerald. 2005. From head to toe: Integrating studies from bones and teeth in biological anthropology. In Human growth in the past: Studies from bones and teeth, ed. R.D. Hoppa and C.M. FitzGerald, 1–32. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar