Missionization and Mission Archaeology in New Zealand and Australia

  • Angela Middleton
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-51726-1_1395-2

State of Knowledge and Current Debates

Recent work in the field of mission archaeology in New Zealand and Australia shows that despite often-assumed historical similarities of these geographically close countries, there were two differing histories of colonial and indigenous encounter, leading to different trajectories of missionization.

Missionization was in the vanguard of colonization in New Zealand, where the first Christian, evangelical mission was founded in 1814, preceding formal British annexation in 1840. In Australia the situation was reversed. The first British convicts arrived in New South Wales (NSW) in 1788, but despite earlier efforts, it was not until about 1832 that missions to Aboriginal Australians were properly established (Fig. 1).
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Binney, J. 2005. The legacy of guilt a life of Thomas Kendall. Wellington: Bridget Williams Books.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Birmingham, J. 1992. Wybalenna: The archaeology of cultural accommodation in nineteenth century Tasmania. Sydney: Australian Society for Historical Archaeology.Google Scholar
  3. Birmingham, J. 2000. Resistance, creolization or optimal foraging at Killalpaninna Mission, South Australia. In The archaeology of difference, ed. R. Torrence and A. Clarke, 360–405. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  4. Birmingham, J., and A. Wilson. 2010. Archaeologies of cultural interaction: Wybalenna settlement and Killalpaninna Mission. International Journal of Historical Archaeology 14: 15–38. http://www.springerlink.com/content/g1826j2322745j57/.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Flexner, J. 2014. Historical archaeology, contact, and colonialism in Oceania. Journal of Archaeological Research 22: 43–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Goffman, E. 1962. Asylums. Chicago: Aldine Publishing.Google Scholar
  7. Grimshaw, P., and E. Nelson. 2001. Empire, “the civilising mission”, and indigenous Christian women in colonial Victoria. Australian Feminist Studies 16 (36): 295–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ireland, T. 2010. From mission to Maynggu Ganai: The Wellington Valley Convict Station and mission site. International Journal of Historical Archaeology 14: 136–155. http://www.springerlink.com/content/5l4m136016101913/.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Lydon, J. 2005. Men in black’: The Blacktown native institution and the origins of the ‘stolen generations’. In Object lessons: Archaeology and Heritage in Australia, ed. J. Lydon and T. Ireland, 201–224. Melbourne: Australian Scholarly Publishing.Google Scholar
  10. Lydon, J. 2009. Fantastic dreaming. Plymouth: AltaMira Press.Google Scholar
  11. Lydon, J. 2014. Intimacy and distance life on the Australian aboriginal mission. In Rethinking colonial pasts through archaeology, ed. N. Ferris, R. Harrison, and M. Wilcox, 233–250. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Lydon, J., and J. Ash. 2010. The archaeology of missions in Australasia: Introduction. International Journal of Historical Archaeology 14: 1–14. http://www.springerlink.com/content/4772527479445810/.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lydon, J., and A. Burns. 2010. Memories of the past, visions of the future: Changing views of Ebenezer mission, Victoria, Australia. International Journal of Historical Archaeology 14: 39–55. http://www.springerlink.com/content/al3060002008v32r/.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Middleton, A. 2007a. Silent voices, hidden lives: Women in the CMS missionary Endeavour, Bay of Islands, 1814–1845. International Journal of Historical Archaeology 11 (1): 1–31. http://www.springerlink.com/content/q35l3xh812608788/.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Middleton, A. 2007b. Mission Station as trading post. The economy of the church missionary Society in the Bay of Islands, New Zealand, 1814–1845. New Zealand Journal of Archaeology 28: 51–81.Google Scholar
  16. Middleton, A. 2008. Te Puna – a New Zealand Mission Station. New York: Springer. http://www.springer.com/social+sciences/archaeology+%26+anthropology/book/978-0-387-77620-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Middleton, A. 2010. Missionization in New Zealand and Australia: A comparison. International Journal of Historical Archaeology 14: 170–187. http://www.springerlink.com/content/3u34l00667q38335/.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Middleton, A. 2013a. Missionization and the cult of domesticity. In Historical and archaeological perspectives on gender transformations: From private to public, ed. S. Camp and S. Spencer-Wood. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  19. Middleton, A. 2013b. Mission archaeology in Aotearoa/New Zealand. In Finding our recent past historial archaeology in New Zealand, ed. M. Campbell, S. Holdaway, and S. Macready, 33–58. Auckland: New Zealand Archaeological Association.Google Scholar
  20. Middleton, A. 2014. Pēwhairangi–Bay of Islands missions and Māori 1814–1845. Dunedin: Otago University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Middleton, A. 2015. Missionization, Maori and colonial warfare in New Zealand. In Oxford handbook of historical archaeology, ed. J. Symonds and L. Wilkie. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://www.oxfordhandbooks.com/view/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199562350.001.0001/oxfordhb-9780199562350-e-32.Google Scholar
  22. Middleton, A., and I. Smith. 2014. Daily Life at Hohi Mission Station: Archives and Archaeology. In ‘Te Rongopai Takoto Te Pai!’ bicentenary reflections on Christian beginnings and developments in Aotearoa New Zealand, ed. A. Davidson, S. Lange, P. Lineham, and A. Puckey. Auckland: General Synod Office of the Anglican Church in Aotearoa.Google Scholar
  23. Morrison, M., D. McNaughton, and C. Keating. 2015. “Their God is their belly”: Moravian missionaries at the Weipa Mission (1898–1932), Cape York Peninsula. Archaeology in Oceania 50(2015): 85–104.Google Scholar
  24. Smith, I. 2014. Schooling on the missionary frontier: The Hohi Mission Station, New Zealand. International Journal of Historical Archaeology 18: 612–628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Smith, I., A. Middleton, J. Garland, and N. Woods. 2012. Archaeology of the Hohi mission. volume 1: The 2012 excavations, University of Otago studies in archaeology. Vol. 24. Dunedin: University of Otago.Google Scholar
  26. Smith, I., A. Middleton, J. Garland, and T. Russell. 2014. Archaeology of the Hohi mission volume 2: The 2013 excavations, University of Otago studies in archaeology. Vol. 26. Dunedin: University of Otago.Google Scholar
  27. Sutton, M-J. 2003. Re-examining total institutions: A case study from Queensland. Archaeology in Oceania 38(2): 78–89.Google Scholar
  28. Sutton, M.-J. 2015. Remembering the mother mission: Exploring trauma, cultural heritage values and identity at Mapoon, a Former mission Village on Western Cape York, Queensland. PhD Thesis, University of Queensland.Google Scholar
  29. Sutton, M.-J., and L.B. Colyers. 2013. Understanding cultural history using ground–penetrating radar mapping of unmarked graves in the Mapoon mission cemetery, Western Cape York Peninsula, Queensland, Australia. International Journal of Historical Archaeology 17 (4): 782–805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Further Reading

  1. Birmingham, J. 1992. Wybalenna: The archaeology of cultural accommodation. Sydney: Australasian Society for Historical Archaeology.Google Scholar
  2. Elder, J.R. 1932. The letters and Journals of samuel marsden 1765–1838. Dunedin: Coulls Sommerville Wilkie Ltd and AH Reed.Google Scholar
  3. Elder, J.R. 1934. Marsden’s Lieutenants. Dunedin: Coulls Somerville Wilkie and A.H. Reed.Google Scholar
  4. International Journal of Historical Archaeology. 2010. 14. http://www.springerlink.com/content/1092-7697/14/1/
  5. Lawrence, S., and P. Davies. 2011. An archaeology of Australia since 1788. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Lydon, J., and U. Rimzi. 2016. Handbook of postcolonial archaeology. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  7. Middleton, A. 2008. Te Puna – a New Zealand mission station. New York: Springer. http://www.springer.com/social+sciences/archaeology+%26+anthropology/book/978-0-387-77620-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Middleton, A. 2014. Pēwhairangi–Bay of Islands missions and Māori 1814–1845. Dunedin: Otago University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Murray, T. 1996. The childhood of William Lanne: Contact archaeology and aboriginality in Tasmania. Antiquity 67: 504–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Smith, I. in press. Pākehā Settlements in a Māori World New Zealand Archaeology 1769 to 1860. Wellington: Bridget Williams Books.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Anthropology and ArchaeologyUniversity of OtagoDunedinNew Zealand

Section editors and affiliations

  • Patricia Fournier
    • 1
  1. 1.Posgrado en ArqueologíaEscuela Nacional de Antropología e HistoriaMéxicoMexico