Outer Membrane Vesicles of Bacteria: Structure, Biogenesis, and Function
Extracellular membrane vesicles (EMVs), a characteristic present across each domain of life, are subcellular shuttles of biologically active cargo that have a variety of functions ranging from cell-to-cell communication to predatory behavior. Mechanism(s) governing EMV biogenesis remain elusive; however, several initiators have been determined such as stress stimuli, sensing a potential prey or intruder, and signaling molecules. Regardless of function, increased membrane curvature and bulging is a key characteristic that leads to budding and release. This chapter highlights the differences between biogenesis processes of the bacteria, archaea and eukarya. We then focus on the outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) specific to Gram-negative bacteria, including several mechanism(s) that potentially explain how the loss of crucial OM-peptidoglycan (PGN) and OM-PGN-inner membrane (IM) interactions can destabilize the OM to result in OMV biogenesis. Despite gaps present in the current understanding of these novel organelles, OMVs are one mechanism that allow microbial cells to function as multicellular organisms, as pathogens, and act as key predators in their environment. We discuss the importance in better understanding OMV biogenesis for greater insight into how this form of membrane architecture can be utilized for vaccines and targeted/specific treatments for infections.
- Baumgarten T, Sperling S, Seifert J et al (2012) Membrane vesicle formation as a multiple-stress response mechanism enhances Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E cell surface hydrophobicity and biofilm formation. Appl Environ Microbiol 78(17):6217–6224. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01525-12CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Deatherage BL, Lara JC, Bergsbaken T, Barrett SLR, Lara S, Cookson BT (2009) Biogenesis of bacterial membrane vesicles. Mol Microbiol 72(6):1395–1407. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2958.2009.06731.x.BiogenesisCrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Prangishvili D, Holz I, Stieger E, Nickell S, Kristjansson JK, Zillig W (2000) Sulfolobicins, specific proteinaceous toxins produced by strains of the extremely thermophilic archaeal genus Sulfolobus. J Bacteriol 182(10):2985–2988. https://doi.org/10.1128/JB.182.10.2985-2988.2000CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Rompikuntal PK, Thay B, Khan M et al (2012) Perinuclear localization of internalized outer membrane vesicles carrying active cytolethal distending toxin from Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Infect Immun 80(1):31–42. https://doi.org/10.1128/IAI.06069-11CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Work E, Knox KW, Vesk M (1966) The chemistry and electron microscopy of an extracellular lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli. Ann N Y Acad Sci 133:438–449. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1966.tb52382.xCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar