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Functional Roles of Individual Membrane Phospholipids in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

  • William DowhanEmail author
  • Mikhail Bogdanov
  • Eugenia Mileykovskaya
  • Heidi Vitrac
Reference work entry
Part of the Handbook of Hydrocarbon and Lipid Microbiology book series (HHLM)

Abstract

The physical and chemical properties of membrane lipids containing both a hydrophobic and hydrophilic domain result in organization into the lipid bilayer that provides the barrier function and defines the limits of cells and organelles. The lipid bilayer provides the solvent for integral membrane proteins and the scaffold with which peripheral membrane proteins associate. The properties of the lipid bilayer are defined by the collective properties of the diverse mixture of resident lipids. The lipidome is composed of glycerol-based phospholipids and glycolipids found in bacteria and the additional steroids and sphingolipids found in eukaryotic cells. The diversity of the lipidome far exceeds that of the proteome when the composition of both the hydrophilic and hydrophilic domains is considered. Therefore, it is not surprising that the diverse physical, chemical, and collective properties of the membrane bilayer have a profound effect on the structure and function of membrane-associated proteins. Lipids affect membrane proteins through the collective properties of the lipid bilayer and through direct specific lipid-protein interactions. Given the vast complexity and diversity of the influence of lipids on membrane proteins throughout nature, this review will focus on selected roles of lipids in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The lipid genetics of each organism will be reviewed in relation to the phenotypes resulting from mutations in lipid biosynthetic pathways. The combined use of genetic manipulation and biochemical characterization will be outlined as a means to establish an understanding at the molecular level of the importance of lipids in cellular processes.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • William Dowhan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mikhail Bogdanov
    • 1
  • Eugenia Mileykovskaya
    • 1
  • Heidi Vitrac
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular BiologyUniversity of Texas Health Science Center, McGovern Medical SchoolHoustonUSA

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