Vitamin Formation from Fatty Acid Precursors
Enzymes that require biotin or lipoic acid cofactors for their activity occur in all domains of life and play essential roles in metabolism. The de novo synthesis of these vitamins depends on the production of fatty acid precursors and has been most extensively characterized in Escherichia coli and Bacillus species. The octanoyl-acyl carrier protein precursor for lipoic acid is synthesized in reactions catalyzed by the fatty acid biosynthesis (Fab) enzymes. The octanoyl moiety is linked to the lipoyl domains of lipoic acid-dependent enzymes and then converted to lipoate by lipoyl synthase. For biotin biosynthesis, both the BioC-BioH pathway in E. coli and the BioI pathway in Bacillus species rely on Fab enzymes to produce the pimeloyl-acyl carrier protein required for biotin production. This review presents an overview of the biosynthetic pathways for biotin and lipoic acid, with an emphasis on the role of fatty acid metabolism in their synthesis.
- Lin S (2012) Biotin synthesis in Escherichia coli. PhD thesis, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 140 ppGoogle Scholar