Advertisement

E-Learning at the Workplace

  • Graham AttwellEmail author
Living reference work entry

Abstract

This chapter explores the development and practice of e-learning in the workplace. New demands for skills and knowledge. Despite the rapid growth of the e-learning industry and the claims of “e-learning evangelists,” there remains serious doubt over the effectiveness, impact and take up of technology for learning, especially in the workplace. That there has been only a limited take up in the use of technology for learning in companies, particularly in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) is an issue of concern to policy makers and planners. This chapter examines research into e-learning in the workplace, as a prelude to exploring the issue of the take up of technology for learning, including in SMEs. It suggests that the major issue has been an approach to the development of technologies for learning founded on technological determinism and this fails to consider the nature of learning in the workplace. It suggests the use of technology for learning in the workplace requires the development of new pedagogic approaches. Such approaches are illustrated with examples drawn from recent large-scale European research and development projects.

Keywords

E-learning Pedagogy Workbased learning Skills and knowledge 

References

  1. Admiraal W, Lockhorst D (2009) E-learning in small and medium-sized enterprises across Europe: attitudes towards technology, learning and training. Int Small Bus J 27(6):743–767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Attwell G (ed) (2007) Searching, lurking and the zone of proximal development, e-learning in small and medium enterprises in Europe. Navreme, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  3. Attwell G (2016) Workplace learning analytics for facilitation in European public employment services. Paper presented at LAK 2016 workshop on learning analytics for workplace and professional learning. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/312115643_Workplace_Learning_Analytics_for_Facilitation_in_European_Public_Employment_Services. Accessed 31 May 2018
  4. Attwell G, Baumgartl B (eds) (2008) Creating learning spaces: training and professional development for trainers. Navreme, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  5. Attwell G, Heinemann L, Deitmer L, Kamareinenen P (2013) Developing PLEs to support work practice based learning, eLearning Papers (35) ISSN: 1887–1542 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/285587249_Developing_PLEs_to_support_work_practice_based_learning/citations
  6. Baldwin TT, Ford JK (1988) Transfer of training: a review and directions for future research. Pers Psychol 41(65):63–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bandura A (1977) Social learning theory. Prentice Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  8. Boud D, Hager P (2012) Re-thinking continuing professional development through changing metaphors and location in professional practices. Stud Contin Educ 34(1):17–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brennen K (2014) Constructionism in the classroom: three experiments in disrupting technocentrism, Vienna. http://constructionism2014.ifs.tuwien.ac.at/papers/1.3_1-8524.pdf. Accessed 31 May 2018
  10. Brown A, Bimrose J (2015) Identity development. In: Hartung PJ, Savickas ML, Walsh WB (eds) APA handbook of career intervention, Volume 2: Applications. APA handbooks in psychology. American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, pp 241–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brown A, Bimrose J (2018) The use of on-line collaborative learning to facilitate learning, development and professional identify transformation of careers and employment practitioners. In: 10th international conference on computer supported education, Funchal, 15–17 Mar 2018Google Scholar
  12. Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) (2013) CIPD/Cornerstone on demand learning and talent development survey 2013 – UK businesses are yet to realise the full potential of modern technology to develop their workforce. http://www.cipd.co.uk/hr-resources/survey-reports/learning-talent-development-2013.aspx?utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=prj&utm_content=research. Accessed 31 May 2018
  13. Cross J (October 2003) Informal learning: a sound investment. Chief Learning Officer 2(10). https://web.archive.org/web/20160218145816/http:/www.clomedia.com/articles/informal_learning_a_sound_investment. Accessed 31 May 2018
  14. de Laat M, Schreurs B (2013) Visualizing informal professional development networks: building a case for learning analytics in the workplace. Am Behav Sci. http://abs.sagepub.com/content/early/2013/03/11/0002764213479364. Accessed 31 May 2018
  15. Deitmer L, Attwell G (2000) Partnership and networks: a dynamic approach to learning in regions. https://www.scribd.com/document/29532849/Partnership-and-networks-a-dynamic-approach-to-learning-in-global-regions. Accessed 31 May 2018
  16. Docebo (2015) eLearning market trends and forecast, 2017–2021. https://www.docebo.com/resource/elearning-market-trends-and-forecast-2017-2021/. Accessed 31 May 2018
  17. Dourish P (2006) Re-space-ing place: place and space ten years on. In: Proceedings of the ACM conference on computer-supported cooperative work, CSCW, Banff, pp 299–308Google Scholar
  18. EmployID (2017) The EmployID approach – empowering change in public employment services. https://employid.eu/sites/default/files/Y3_Book.pdf. Accessed 31 May 2018
  19. Eraut M (2000) Non-formal learning and tacit knowledge in professional work. Br J Educ Psychol 70:113–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fuller A, Unwin L (2003) Learning as Apprentices in the Contemporary UK Workplace: Creating and Managing Expansive and Restrictive Participation. J Educ Work 16(4): 407–426.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1363908032000093012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fruhmann K, Nussbaumer A, Albert D (2010) A psycho-pedagogical framework for self-regulated learning in a responsive open learning environment. In: Hambach S, Martens A, Urban B (eds) Proceedings of the 3rd international eLBa science conference, RostockGoogle Scholar
  22. Grundke R et al (2018) Which skills for the digital era?: Returns to skills analysis. OECD science, technology and industry working papers, no. 2018/09. OECD Publishing, Paris.  https://doi.org/10.1787/9a9479b5-enCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Guile D, Young M (2001) The importance of innovation and learning networks in regional context. In: Fischer M, Heidegger G, Petersen W, Spöttl G (eds) Gestalten statt Anpassen in Arbeit, Technik und Beruf. W. Bertelsmann Verlag, BielefeldGoogle Scholar
  24. Guiney P (2015) E-learning in the workplace. An annotated bibliography. Ministry of Education, Wellington. https://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/publications/e-Learning/e-learning-in-the-workplace. Accessed 1 December, 2018
  25. Gumbrecht H-U (ed) (1988) Materialität der Kommunikation. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt/MainGoogle Scholar
  26. Hague C, Logan A (2009) A review of the current landscape of adult informal learning using digital technologies. General educators report, futurelab.org.uk. http://preview.futurelab.org.uk/resources/documents/project_reports/becta/Adult_Informal_Learning_educators_report.pdf. Accessed 31 May 2018
  27. Hart J (2018) Classroom training and e-learning are the least valued ways of learning. This is what it means for L&D. https://modernworkplacelearning.com/magazine/classroom-training-and-e-learning-are-the-least-valued-ways-of-learning/. Accessed 31 May 2018
  28. Istance D, Theisens H (2013) Thinking about the future: insights from an international project. Int J Educ Res 61:111–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Januszewski A, Molenda M (2010) Educational technology: a definition with commentary. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  30. Kittler F (1985) Aufschreibesysteme 1800/1900. Fink, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  31. Kluijtmans F (ed) (2010) Leerboek personeelsmanagement, Noordhoff Uitgever.bv. http://hoadd.noordhoff.nl/sites/7008/_assets/7008d253.pdf. Accessed 1 December, 2018
  32. Kraiger K (2008) Transforming our models of learning and development: web-based instruction as enabler of third-generation instruction.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1754-9434.2008.00086.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kuit JA, Fell A (2010) Web 2.0 to pedagogy 2.0: a social-constructivist approach to learning enhanced by technology. In: Critical design and effective tools for e-learning in higher education: theory into practice. IGI Global, Hershey, pp 310–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kunzmann C, Schmidt A (2006) Towards a human resource development ontology for combining competence management and technology-enhanced workplace learning. Paper presented at OTM confederated international conferences “On the move to meaningful internet systems”, Springer, Berlin/HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  35. Latchem C (2006) Editorial: a content analysis of the British Journal of Educational Technology. Br J Educ Technol 37(4):503–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Latham GP, Crandall SR (1991) Organizational and social factors. In: Morrison JE (ed) Training for performance. Wiley, Chichester, pp 260–285Google Scholar
  37. LinkedIn (2018) 2018 Workplace learning report. https://learning.linkedin.com/elearning-solutions-guides/workplace-learning-report-2018. Accessed 31 May 2018
  38. Littlejohn A, Pegler C (2014) Reusing resources: open for learning. J Interact Media Educ 2014(1):Art. 2.  https://doi.org/10.5334/2014-02CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Marsick VJ, Watkins KE (1990) Informal and incidental learning in the workplace. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  40. MIT Sloan (2017) The corporate implications of longer lives. https://sloanreview.mit.edu/article/the-corporate-implications-of-longer-lives/. Accessed 31 May 2018
  41. Mwangi J (2014) An investigation towards e-learning at the workplace: a case study of UNEP staff at Gigiri. http://hdl.handle.net/11732/147. Accessed 31 May 2018
  42. Onstenk J (1997) Lerend leren werken: Brede vakbekwaamheid en de integratie van leren, werken en innoveren [Learning to learn to work: broad competence and the integration of learning, working and innovating]. Universiteit Nijmegen, NijmegenGoogle Scholar
  43. Papert S (1990) A critique of technocentrism in thinking about the school of the future. http://www.papert.org/articles/ACritiqueofTechnocentrism.html. Accessed 31 May 2018
  44. Reckwitz (2002) Toward a theory of social practices: a development in culturalist theorizing. Eur J Soc Theory 5(2):243–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Recode (2015) Three reasons LinkedIn broke the bank for Lynda.com. https://www.recode.net/2015/4/9/11561324/three-reasons-linkedin-broke-the-bank-for-lynda-com. Accessed 31 May 2018
  46. Savickas M (2013) Career construction theory and practice. In: Lent RW, Brown SD (eds) Career development and counseling: putting theory and research to work, 2nd edn. Wiley, Hoboken, pp 147–183Google Scholar
  47. Scheffel M, Schmidt M, Werkle M, Wolpers M (2013) Using PLEs in professional learning scenarios – the Festo case for ROLE. eLearning papers 33. https://www.scribd.com/document/151889471/elearning-papers-2013-33-moocs-and-beyond-may-pdf. Accessed 1 December, 2018
  48. Schmidt A, Kunzmann C (eds) (2016) Empowering change in public employment services: the EmployID approach. https://employid.eu/sites/default/files/Deliverable_Y2_Public_Final.pdf. Accessed 31 May 2018
  49. Sefton-Green J (2004) Literature review in informal learning with technology outside school. Futurelab, Bristol. http://archive.futurelab.org.uk/resources/documents/lit_reviews/Informal_Learning_Review.pdf. Accessed 31 May 2018Google Scholar
  50. Serrat O (2017) E-learning and the workplace. In: Knowledge solutions. Springer, SingaporeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Short H, Greener S (2014) Editorial: TEL in the workplace. Br J Educ Technol 45(6):983–989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sloep PB (2011). Technology enhanced learning in the workplace. https://www.academia.edu/2894291/Technology_Enhanced_Learning_in_the_workplace. Accessed 31 May 2018
  53. Spitler V (2005) Learning to Use IT in the Workplace: Mechanisms and Masters, Journal of Organizational and End User Computing (JOEUC) 17(2).  https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-59140-926-7.ch013
  54. Technavio (2018) Global Corporate E-learning Market 2016–2020. https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20160129005032/en/Global-Corporate-E-learning-Market-Reach-USD-31. Accessed 1 December, 2018
  55. Tynjälä P, Häkkinen P, Hämäläinen R (2014) TEL@work: toward integration of theory and practice. Br J Educ Technol 45(6):990–1000.  https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Van Damme D (2014) Open educational resources sharing content and knowledge differently is a driver of innovation in education. https://www.slideshare.net/OECDEDU/open-educational-resources-sharing-content-and-knowledge-differently-is-a-driver-of-innovation-in-education. Accessed 31 May 2018
  57. Wang M (2011) Integrating organizational, social, and individual perspectives in Web 2.0-based workplace e-learning. Inf Syst Front 13(2):191–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Werkle M, Schmidt M, Dikke D, Schwantzer S (2013) Case Study 4: Technology enhanced workplace learning. In: Kroop S et al (eds) Responsive open learning environments. Springer, Cham.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-02399-1_7Google Scholar
  59. World Bank (2003) Lifelong learning in the global knowledge economy: challenges for developing countries. The World Bank, Washington, DC. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTLL/Resources/Lifelong-Learning-in-the-Global-Knowledge-Economy/lifelonglearning_GKE.pdfCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Zimmerman BJ (1989) Models of self-regulated learning and academic achievement. In: Zimmerman BJ, Schunk DH (eds) Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: theory, research, and practice. Springer, New York, pp 1–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.PontydysguPontypriddUK

Section editors and affiliations

  • Michael Gessler
    • 1
  • Larissa Holle
    • 2
  • Susanne Peters
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Technology and EducationUniversity of BremenBremenGermany
  2. 2.University of BremenBremenGermany
  3. 3.University of BremenBremenGermany

Personalised recommendations