Encyclopedia of Couple and Family Therapy

2019 Edition
| Editors: Jay L. Lebow, Anthony L. Chambers, Douglas C. Breunlin

Alliance Scales in Couple and Family Therapy

  • Maliha IbrahimEmail author
  • Katherine Vaughan
  • Guy S. Diamond
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-49425-8_388


Individual, Couple and Family Therapy Alliance Scale (ITAS, CTAS and FTAS); System for Observing Family Therapy Alliances (SOFTA); Vanderbilt Therapeutic Alliance Scale (VTAS); Working Alliance Inventory (WAI); Working Alliance Inventory (WAI-Co)


For the past 60 years, therapeutic alliance has been considered one of the most important common factors in psychotherapy research. Early on, couple and family therapy (CFT) researchers joined this area of research, wanting to better understand how therapeutic alliance could be examined within a family system (Pinsof and Catherall 1986; Rait 2000). Previous measurement tools were developed to evaluate the therapeutic alliance between an individual client and their therapist. CFT researchers questioned if these measurement tools could assess the complexities of a therapist attending to multiple family members simultaneously. Consequently, family therapists sought to develop more complex, multilevel models of alliance and...

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maliha Ibrahim
    • 1
    Email author
  • Katherine Vaughan
    • 2
  • Guy S. Diamond
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Family Intervention, Drexel UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Drexel UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Heather Pederson
    • 1
  • Diana Semmelhack
    • 2
  1. 1.Council for RelationshipsPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Midwestern UniversityDowners GroveUSA