Encyclopedia of Couple and Family Therapy

2019 Edition
| Editors: Jay L. Lebow, Anthony L. Chambers, Douglas C. Breunlin

Gilligan, Carol

  • Kevin Yu
  • Alexandra H. SolomonEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-49425-8_1044


Carol Gilligan, Ph.D.


Gilligan’s contribution to the field of couple and family therapy is impossible to overstate. As the founding mother of the field of gender differences in psychology, her work paved the way for researchers and clinicians to think critically about the impact of gender, sexism, and patriarchy on couple and family systems. Gilligan entered the field of psychology in an era when theories were riddled by an unacknowledged problem of gender. Theories built on data gathered exclusively from male participants were assumed to be applicable to the lived experiences of women. Her commitment to listening to women and girls and asking questions about their lives forever transformed the field by bringing into awareness the ways in which a patriarchal order amplifies some voices while marginalizing and silencing others. While second wave feminists were devoted to showing how the personal is political, Gilligan was also showing how the political is...

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  1. Brown, L. M., & Gilligan, C. (1992). Meeting at the crossroads: Women’s psychology and girls’ development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Gilligan, C. (1977). In a different voice: Women’s conceptions of self and of morality. Harvard Educational Review, 47(4), 481–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Gilligan, C. (1982, 1994). In a different voice: Psychological theory and women’s development. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Gilligan, C. (2003). The birth of pleasure: A new map of love. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  5. Gilligan, C. (2008). Kyra: A novel. New York: Random House Trade Paperbacks.Google Scholar
  6. Gilligan, C. (2011). Joining the resistance. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  7. Gilligan, C., & Richards, D. A. J. (2018). Darkness now visible: patriarchy’s resurgence and feminist resistance. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gilligan, C., & Snider, N. (2018). Why does patriarchy persist? Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Family Institute at Northwestern UniversityEvanstonUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Jessica Rohlfing Pryor
    • 1
  1. 1.The Family Institute at Northwestern UniversityEvanstonUSA