Encyclopedia of Animal Cognition and Behavior

Living Edition
| Editors: Jennifer Vonk, Todd Shackelford


  • Swati MishraEmail author
  • Anubhav Pradeep
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-47829-6_496-1



Parsimony is a principle used as a means of keeping explanations as simple as possible by providing the simplest of explanations to describe an observation or an understanding.


Behavior is the way in which a living organism reacts to a particular situation. In psychology, behavior is thought of as an organism’s external reactions to its environmental stimuli. The analysis of behavior is a science based on the foundations and principles of behaviorism. It can be said that behavior is that particular response of an organism which reflects the kind of stimuli received from the environment. This behavior may be modified by using either positive or negative or manipulating reinforcements from the organism’s environment or according to self-directed intentions or impulses. Human behavior is more complex than animal. Society and culture plays a vital role in shaping human behavior although it is difficult to quantify the extent to...

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Banaras Hindu universityVaranasiIndia
  2. 2.University of Illinois at ChicagoChicagoUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Douglas Sellers
    • 1
  1. 1.Penn State Worthington ScrantonScrantonUSA