Token systems are ubiquitous in human culture, providing the basic framework for economic transactions within the world. A token is often manipulable and easy to handle (e.g., coins, cubes) but can be non-manipulable as well (e.g., stimulus lamps, points on a counter, checkmarks). Tokens are called secondary reinforcers when they are collected and later exchanged for a primary reinforcer, as a meaningful object or some food. A primary reinforcer is an unconditioned or unlearned reward (e.g., food), whereas a secondary reinforcer is a conditioned reward associated with a specific value, which will be learned over time (e.g., money). Token’s value can remain unchanged for extended period and,...
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