The ability to recognize oneself in a mirror.
Mirror self-recognition (MSR), the ability to recognize oneself in a mirror and “the ability to become the object of your own attention” (Gallup 1982, pp. 242–243) is considered to be a reliable indicator that humans and some other animals recognize their reflection in a mirror as an external representation of self (Amsterdam 1972; Anderson 1984; Gallup 1970; Rochat 2003). Researchers have used mirrors as tools to study the development and perception of self in human and nonhuman species. Developmental studies of MSR in humans indicate that the earliest age children first show self-directed behavior is 12–15 months and mark-directed behavior (passing the mark test) first emerges between 18–24 months (Amsterdam 1972; Anderson 1984; Bard et al. 2006; see review in Reiss and Morrison 2017). It has been theorized that proprioceptive awareness may be an antecedent of the onset of...
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