Encyclopedia of Animal Cognition and Behavior

Living Edition
| Editors: Jennifer Vonk, Todd Shackelford

Cranial Base

  • Ravi Kant NarayanEmail author
  • Manika Verma
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-47829-6_1278-1



The skull forms a part of the axial skeleton which comprises of 28 bones, most of which are paired (11 paired and 6 unpaired bones). Out of these 21 bones are firmly connected to one another by means of sutures and synchondrosis which renders them immovable. The main functions of the skull are to protect the brain, its coverings and to help in communicating one’s feelings via numerous facial expressions. These functions can be attributed to the two parts of skull (Retzlaff 1987):
  1. 1.


  2. 2.




This includes eight bones, namely, frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid, occipital, temporal and parietal (the latter two are paired). These bones are involved in enclosing the cranial cavity to house the brain and its meninges, subsequently providing protection to the structures without hindering the blood circulation. The neuro-cranial vault is called as calvaria and is composed of membranous or...

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.All India Institute of Medical SciencesPatnaIndia
  2. 2.Mahaveer Cancer Institute and Research CentrePatnaIndia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Oskar Pineno
    • 1
  1. 1.Hofstra UniversityLong IslandUSA