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Obesity pp 75-88 | Cite as

Roles of Gut Hormones in the Regulation of Food Intake and Body Weight

  • Lidia Castagneto Gissey
  • James Casella Mariolo
  • Geltrude MingroneEmail author
Reference work entry
Part of the Endocrinology book series (ENDOCR)

Abstract

The gastrointestinal tract is extremely rich in endocrine cells and secretes a myriad of hormones, including ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP1), gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), cholecystokinin (CCK), amylin, peptide YY (PYY), oxyntomodulin, and leptin. Mechanical distention of the stomach elicits mechanoreceptors within the gastric wall sensing tension, stretch, and volume, which then send brain signals through vagal and spinal sensory nerves.

Both stomach and gut are tightly connected with the central nervous system where the fullness sensation is elaborated. Peripheral signaling hormones regulate appetite in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus through anorexigenic and orexigenic signals. The gut–hindbrain axis is sufficient to drive the satiation sensation, although hindbrain also communicates with the forebrain where sensory and cognitive processes linked to meal anticipation and learned associations play a relevant role in the anticipation of food reward and pleasure.

We report an overview of the intestinal mechanisms regulating satiety and body weight with particular emphasis to the effects of drugs and bariatric/metabolic surgery on gut hormonal secretion.

Keywords

Gastrointestinal hormones Nervous system Satiety Appetite 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lidia Castagneto Gissey
    • 1
  • James Casella Mariolo
    • 1
  • Geltrude Mingrone
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Surgical SciencesSapienza University of RomeRomeItaly
  2. 2.Department of Internal MedicineCatholic UniversityRomeItaly
  3. 3.Diabetes and Nutritional SciencesKing’s College LondonLondonUK

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