Bioceramics for Musculoskeletal Regenerative Medicine: Materials and Manufacturing Process Compatibility for Synthetic Bone Grafts and Medical Devices

  • Ciro A. Rodriguez
  • Hernan Lara-Padilla
  • David DeanEmail author
Reference work entry
Part of the Reference Series in Biomedical Engineering book series (RSBE)


This chapter is focused on bioceramics for musculoskeletal regenerative medicine, with emphasis on material and manufacturing compatibility in the development of synthetic bone grafts. Bioceramics are classified into families depending on their relative bioactivity: passive, bioactive, and bioresorbable. Passive bioceramics, such as alumina and zirconia, are mainly used for load-bearing implants. Bioactive ceramics, such as bioactive glass, are useful to generate a strong bond between metallic surfaces and bone. Bioresorbable ceramics are applied to bone void filling and scaffolds for synthetic grafts. A description of bioceramics and their use in manufacturing processes is given, with major emphasis on techniques that may be useful in the fabrication of regenerative devices such as synthetic bone grafts. The manufacturing processes of interest are classified into molding, additive manufacturing, and coating techniques. The use of bioceramic-based scaffolds in bone repair animal models and clinical studies is reviewed. Finally, this chapter provides an outlook of future research directions for improved bioceramic use in synthetic bone grafts or regenerative skeletal devices.


Additive manufacturing Calcium phosphate Alumina Zirconia Bioactive glass Bioglass Hydroxyapatite Tricalcium phosphate Bone Skeleton Vertebra (spine) Hip Knee Joint replacement (arthroplasty) Reconstructive surgery Dental implant 



The authors acknowledge partial support from the Army, Navy, NIH, Air Force, VA, and Health Affairs to support the AFIRM II effort under award No. W81XWH-14-2-0004. The US Army Medical Research Acquisition Activity is the awarding and administering acquisition office for award No. W81XWH-14-2-0004. Partial support was also provided by a Third Frontier (State of Ohio) Technology Validation and Startup Fund (TVSF) grant #15-791 grant, CONACyT grant #DCI from the Government of Mexico to Hernan Lara Padilla, and CONACyT #grant #274867 from the Mexican Government to Ciro A. Rodriguez.



Inkjet printing (type of additive manufacturing process)


Biphasic calcium phosphate


Bioactive glass


Calcium phosphate


Calcium sulfate (CaSO4)


Dicalcium silicate (Ca2SiO4)


Direct ink writing/robocasting (type of additive manufacturing process)


Digital light processing (type of additive manufacturing process)


Direct micromirror device (type of additive manufacturing process)


Electrospinning (type of additive manufacturing process)


Fused deposition modeling (type of additive manufacturing process)




Low-temperature deposition modeling (type of additive manufacturing process)


Melt electrospinning (type of additive manufacturing process)




Octacalcium phosphate (Ca8H2(PO4)6·5H2O)




Pressure assisted dispensing (type of additive manufacturing process)




Precision extruding deposition (type of additive manufacturing process)


Polylactide acid




Poly(propylene fumarate)


Stereolithography (type of additive manufacturing process)


Selective laser melting (type of additive manufacturing process)


Selective laser sintering (type of additive manufacturing process)


In the design of injection molds, slides are moving components


Sr-hardystonite (Sr-Ca2ZnSi2O7)


Tricalcium phosphate


Tetracalcium phosphate (Ca4(PO4)2O)


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ciro A. Rodriguez
    • 1
  • Hernan Lara-Padilla
    • 2
  • David Dean
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Escuela de Ingeniería y CienciasTecnológico de MonterreyMonterreyMexico
  2. 2.Departamento de Ciencias de la Energía y MecánicaUniversidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPESangolquíEcuador
  3. 3.Department of Plastic SurgeryThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA

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