Fabrication and Printing of Multi-material Hydrogels

  • Navein Arumugasaamy
  • Hannah B. Baker
  • David S. Kaplan
  • Peter C. W. Kim
  • John P. FisherEmail author
Reference work entry
Part of the Reference Series in Biomedical Engineering book series (RSBE)


Bioprinting has emerged over the past decade as a prominent technology in the field of tissue engineering. This enables fabrication of cell-laden hydrogels with precise control over the architecture of the scaffold and the location of cells, growth factors, and other biological cues of interest. We first discuss the challenges that exist in terms of choosing a bioprinter, ensuring mechanical support and printability of a material, and minimizing cellular stress for cell-laden prints. We then explain the different crosslinking methods commonly used in hydrogel printing and approaches to alter bioink crosslinking mechanisms. We discuss material selection for bioprinting with elaboration on common materials that have been used and a review of multi-material prints involving hydrogels. We also explore the use of a single, mixed bioink to fabricate complex but homogeneous constructs and multiple, independent bioinks to fabricate complex heterogeneous tissue constructs within the multi-material review. We conclude with a summary of the current state of the field and an outlook on future research.


Bioprinting Hydrogels Cell printing Multi-material Cell-laden hydrogels 



This work was supported by a seed grant from the Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation at Children’s National Medical Center and the A. James Clark School of Engineering at the University of Maryland. Additional funding was provided by the National Science Foundation/US Food and Drug Administration Scholar in Residence Program (CBET1445700). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of these funding sources.


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Copyright information

© This is a U.S. Government work and not under copyright protection in the US; foreign copyright protection may apply 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Navein Arumugasaamy
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hannah B. Baker
    • 1
    • 3
  • David S. Kaplan
    • 3
  • Peter C. W. Kim
    • 2
    • 4
  • John P. Fisher
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Fischell Department of BioengineeringUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA
  2. 2.Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical InnovationChildren’s National Health SystemWashingtonUSA
  3. 3.Center for Devices and Radiological HealthU.S. Food and Drug AdministrationSilver SpringUSA
  4. 4.School of Medicine and Health SciencesThe George Washington UniversityWashingtonUSA

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