Skin and Skin Disease Throughout Life

  • Serena GianfaldoniEmail author
  • Georgi Tchernev
  • Michael Tirant
  • Uwe Wollina
  • David Ernesto Castillo
  • Katlein França
  • Torello Lotti
Living reference work entry


Skin is a complex and dynamic organ, which shows different physiological and pathological characteristics through age, due to the continuous interaction of intrinsic (e.g., genetic factors, hormones, and others) and extrinsic factors (e.g., infections, irritative or sensitizing factors, and others).


Birth Puberty Somatic development Skin Epidermal maturation Sebaceous gland Sweat gland Cutaneous pH Trans-epidermal water loss Skin microbiome Melanin UV protection Skin growth Skin disease Childhood Puberty Adolescence Premature puberty Delayed puberty Menstrual cycle Pregnancy Childbirth Puerperium Pigmentary change Striae gravidarum Striae distensae Molluscum fibrosum gravidarum Skin tag Vascular alteration Infection Metabolic disease Connective disease Autoimmune disorder Skin disease of pregnancy Dermatosis of pregnancy Menopause Keratoderma climatericum Haxthausen disease Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus Senescence Skin photoaging Pruritus Eczema Leg ulcer Bullous pemphigoid Benign skin lesion Non-melanoma skin cancer 


  1. Abitbol L, Zborovski S, Palmert MR (2016) Evaluation of delayed puberty: what diagnostic tests should be performed in the seemingly otherwise well adolescent? Arch Dis Child 101(8):767–771CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Agache P, Blanc D, Barrand C, Laurent R (1980) Sebum levels during the first year of life. Br J Dermatol 103(6):643–649CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Almario L, Antonyan AS, Porto DA, Gomez-Roberts H, Alhousseini A, Gonik B (2016) Management of psoriasis herpeticum in pregnancy: a clinical conundrum. Case Rep Obstet Gynecol 2016:5319425PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Alves GF, Nogueira LSC, Varella TCN (2005) Dermatology and pregnancy. An Bras Dermatol 80(2):179–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baumann L (2007) Skin ageing and its treatment. J Pathol 211(2):241–251CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Biro FM, Kiess W (2016) Contemporary trends in onset and completion of puberty, gain in height and adiposity. Endocr Dev 29:122–133CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Boull C, Maguiness SM (2016) Congenital hemangiomas. Semin Cutan Med Surg 35(3):124–127CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Cereda AF, Canova PA, Soriano FS (2017) Spontaneous coronary artery dissection after pregnancy as first manifestation of a vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. J Invasive Cardiol 29(6):E67–E68PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Chander R, Garg T, Kakkar S, Jain A (2011) Specific pregnancy dermatoses in 1430 females from Northern India. J Dermatol Case Rep 5(4):69–73CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Chulani VL, Gordon LP (2014) Adolescent growth and development. Prim Care 41(3):465–487CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Cohen KR, Frank J, Salbu RL, Israel I (2012) Pruritus in the elderly: clinical approaches to the improvement of quality of life. P T 37(4):227–239PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Driscoll MS, Martires K, Bieber AK, Pomeranz MK, Grant-Kels JM, Stein JA (2016) Pregnancy and melanoma. J Am Acad Dermatol 75(4):669–678CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Eichenfield LF, Hardaway CA (1999) Neonatal dermatology. Curr Opin Pediatr 11(5):471–474CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Elenkov IJ, Wilder RL, Bakalov VK, Link AA, Dimitrov MA, Fisher S, Crane M, Kanik KS, Chrousos GP (2001) IL-12, TNF-α, and hormonal changes during late pregnancy and early postpartum: implications for autoimmune disease activity during these times. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86(10):4933–4938PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Erpolat S, Eser A, Kaygusuz I, Balci H, Kosus A, Kosus N (2016) Nail alterations during pregnancy: a clinical study. Int J Dermatol 55(10):1172–1175CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Evans NJ, Rutter N (1986) Development of the epidermis in the newborn. Biol Neonate 49(2):74–80CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Fluhr JW, Darlenski R, Taieb A, Hachem JP, Baudouin C, Msika P, De Belilovsky C, Berardesca E (2010) Functional skin and adaptation in infancy–almost complete but not fully competent. Exp Dermatol 19(6):483–492CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Fluhr JW, Darlenski R, Lachmann N, Baudouin C, Msika P, De Belilovsky C, Hachem JP (2012) Infant epidermal skin physiology: adaptation after birth. Br J Dermatol 166(3):483–490CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Freeman E, Sherif K (2007) Prevalence of hot flushes and night sweats around the world: a systematic review. Climacteric 10(3):197–214CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Funaro D (2004) Lichen sclerosus: a review and practical approach. Dermatol Ther 17(1):28–37CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Gawkrodger DJ, Ardern-Jones MR (2017) Leg ulcers. In: Dermatology: an illustrated colour text, 6th edn/Electronic versioned. ClinicalKey. Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier Edinburgh, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. Goglia L, Bernacchi G, Gianfaldoni S (2014) Melasma: a cosmetic stigma during pregnancy. Pigment Disord S1:007Google Scholar
  23. Grice EA, Kong HH, Conlan S, Deming CB, Davis J, Young AC, NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, Bouffard GG, Blakesley RW, Murray PR, Green ED, Turner ML, Segre JA (2009) Topographical and temporal diversity of the human skin microbiome. Science 324(5931):1190–1192CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Guaraldi F, Beccuti G, Gori D, Ghizzoni L (2016) Management of endocrine disease: long-term outcomes of the treatment of central precocious puberty. Eur J Endocrinol 174(3):R79–R87CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Handel AC, Miot LD, Miot HA (2014) Melasma: a clinical and epidemiological review. An Bras Dermatol 89(5):771–782CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Harpin VA, Rutter N (1982) Development of emotional sweating in the newborn infant. Arch Dis Child 57(9):691–695CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Hoeger PH, Enzmann CC (2002) Skin physiology of the neonate and young infant: a prospective study of functional skin parameters during early infancy. Pediatr Dermatol 19(3):256–262CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Hoffman BL, Schorge JO, Bradshaw KD, Halvorson LM, Schaffer JI, Corton MM (2016) Menopausal transition. In: Williams gynecology, 3e. McGraw-Hill Education, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  29. Hofmeister S, Bodden S (2016) Premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Am Fam Physician 94(3):236–240PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Holzer I, Farr A, Kiss H, Hagmann M, Petricevic L (2017) The colonization with Candida species is more harmful in the second trimester of pregnancy. Arch Gynecol Obstet 295(4):891–895CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Hölzle E, Bechara FG (2012) Pathophysiology, clinical features and diagnosis of hyperhidrosis. Hautarzt 63(6):448–451CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Judge MR, McLean WHI, Munro CS (2004) Disorders of keratinization: palmoplantar keratodermas. In: Burns T, Breathnach S, Cox N, Griffiths C (eds) Rook’s textbook of dermatology, vol 1. Blackwell Science, Malden, pp 79–107Google Scholar
  33. Kanaka-Gantenbein C, Kogia C, Abdel-Naser MB, Chrousos GP (2016) Skin manifestations of growth hormone-induced diseases. Rev Endocr Metab Disord 17(3):259–267CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Kaplowitz P, Bloch C (2016) Evaluation and referral of children with signs of early puberty. Pediatrics 137(1):e20153732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kenyon AP, Tribe RM, Nelson-Piercy C, Girling JC, Williamson C, Seed PT, Vaughan-Jones S, Shennan AH (2010) Pruritus in pregnancy: a study of anatomical distribution and prevalence in relation to the development of obstetric cholestasis. Obstet Med 3(1):25–29CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Kumar P, Magon N (2012) Hormones in pregnancy. Niger Med J 53(4):179–183CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Kuzma EK, Peters RM (2016) Adolescent vulnerability, sexual health, and the NP’s role in health advocacy. J Am Assoc Nurse Pract 28(7):353–361PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Laube S, Farrell AM (2002) Bacterial skin infections in the elderly: diagnosis and treatment. Drugs Aging 19(5):331–342CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Lehrhoff S, Pomeranz MK (2013) Specific dermatoses of pregnancy and their treatment. Dermatol Ther 26(4):274–284CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Leung A, Balaji S, Keswani SG (2013) Biology and function of fetal and pediatric skin. Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am 21(1):1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lijima S (2018) Fetal and neonatal involvement in maternal rheumatologic disease. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 31(15):2079–2085CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mack MC, Tierney NK, Ruvolo E Jr, Stamatas GN, Martin KM, Kollias N (2011) Development of solar UVR-related pigmentation begins as early as the first summer of life. J Invest Dermatol 131(9):1388Google Scholar
  43. Mahady K, Thust S, Berkeley R, Stuart S, Barnacle A, Robertson F, Mankad K (2015) Vascular anomalies of the head and neck in children. Quant Imaging Med Surg 5(6):886–897PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Maibach HI, Boisits EK (1981) Neonatal skin. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  45. Malkud S (2015) Telogen effluvium: a review. J Clin Diagn Res 9(9):WE01–WE03PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Manzoni AP, Weber MB, Nagatomi AR, Pereira RL, Townsend RZ, Cestari TF (2013) Assessing depression and anxiety in the caregivers of pediatric patients with chronic skin disorders. An Bras Dermatol 88(6):894–899CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Markovic SN, Erickson LA, Rao RD, Weenig RH, Pockaj BA, Bardia A, Vachon CM, Schild SE, McWilliams RR, Hand JL, Laman SD, Kottschade LA, Maples WJ, Pittelkow MR, Pulido JS, Cameron JD, Creagan ET, Melanoma Study Group of the Mayo Clinic Cancer Center (2007) Malignant melanoma in the 21st century, part 1: epidemiology, risk factors, screening, prevention, and diagnosis. Mayo Clin Proc 82(3):364–380CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Maroñas-Jiménez L, Krakowski AC (2016) Pediatric acne: clinical patterns and pearls. Dermatol Clin 34(2):195–202CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Morris-Jones R (2014) Leg ulcers. In: Morris-Jones R (ed) ABC of dermatology, 6th edn. BMJ Books, Somerset, pp 82–88Google Scholar
  50. Müllegger RR, Häring NS, Glatz M (2016) Skin infections in pregnancy. Clin Dermatol 34(3):368–377CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Na CR, Wang S, Kirsner RS, Federman DG (2012) Elderly adults and skin disorders: common problems for nondermatologists. South Med J 105(11):600–606CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Nair AR, Taylor HS (2010) The mechanism of menstruation. In: Santoro NF, Neal-Perry G (eds) Amenorrhea: a case-based, clinical guide (contemporary endocrinology). Humana Press/Springer Science+Business Media, New York, pp 21–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Nussbaum R, Benedetto AV (2006) Cosmetic aspects of pregnancy. Clin Dermatol 24(2):133–141CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. Ooi ET, Tidman MJ (2014) Improving the management of seborrhoeic dermatitis. Practitioner 258(1768):23–26. 3PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. Oranje AP, de Waard-van der Spek FB (2015) Recent developments in the management of common childhood skin infections. J Infect 71(Suppl 1):S76–S79CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Ozzola G (2017) Anti-Müllerian hormone: a brief review of the literature. Clin Ter 168(1):e14–e22PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. Perera P, Kurban AK, Ryan TJ (1970) The development of the cutaneous microvascular system in the newborn. Br J Dermatol 82(s5):86–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Pérez-Maldonado A, Kurban AK (2006) Metabolic diseases and pregnancy. Clin Dermatol 24(2):88–90CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Poon F, Kang S, Chien AL (2015) Mechanisms and treatments of photoaging. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 31(2):65–74CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. Pyun BY (2015) Natural history and risk factors of atopic dermatitis in children. Allergy, Asthma Immunol Res 7(2):101–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Raghunath RS, Venables ZC, Millington GW (2015) The menstrual cycle and the skin. Clin Exp Dermatol 40(2):111–115CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. Ramos PM, Miot HA (2015) Female pattern hair loss: a clinical and pathophysiological review. An Bras Dermatol 90(4):529–543CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. Ramos-E-Silva M, Martins NR, Kroumpouzos G (2016) Oral and vulvovaginal changes in pregnancy. Clin Dermatol 34(3):353–358CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. Rayala BZ, Morrell DS (2017) Common skin conditions in children: neonatal skin lesions. FP Essent 453:11–17PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. Reimer A, Johnson L (2011) Atrophic vaginitis: signs, symptoms, and better outcomes. Nurse Pract 36(1):22–28. quiz 29CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Rogers HW, Weinstock MA, Harris AR, Hinckley MR, Feldman SR, Fleischer AB, Coldiron BM (2010) Incidence estimate of nonmelanoma skin cancer in the United States, 2006. Arch Dermatol 146(3):283–287CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Sandrine B, Goebeler M (2014) Vasculitis in childhood – a dermatological approach. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 12(2):124–129PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Sanfilippo AM, Barrio V, Kulp-Shorten C, Callen JP (2003) Common pediatric and adolescent skin conditions. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 16(5):269–283CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. Schmid-Wendtner MH, Korting HC (2006) The pH of the skin surface and its impact on the barrier function. Skin Pharmacol Physiol 19(6):296–302CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Schnopp C, Mempel M (2011) Acne vulgaris in children and adolescents. Minerva Pediatr 63(4):293–304PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Simpson EL, Irvine AD, Eichenfield LF, Friedlander SF (2016) Update on epidemiology, diagnosis, and disease course of atopic dermatitis. Semin Cutan Med Surg 35(5 Suppl):S84–S88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sinisi AA, Pasquali D, Notaro A, Bellastella A (2003) Sexual differentiation. J Endocrinol Investig 26(3 Suppl):23–28Google Scholar
  73. Slade AD, Austin MT (2014) Childhood melanoma: an increasingly important health problem in the USA. Curr Opin Pediatr 26(3):356–361CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Smith SD, Fischer G (2009) Paediatric vulval lichen sclerosus. Aust J Dermatol 50(4):243–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Snyder JL, Krishnaswamy G (2003) Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis and its manifestation as anaphylaxis: a case report and literature review. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 90(5):469–477CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. Stieler KM, Vogt A, Blume-Peytavi U (2016) Erythematosquamous dermatoses in adolescence. Hautarzt 67(4):293–297CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. Syrigos KN, Tzannou I, Katirtzoglou N, Georgiou E (2005) Skin cancer in the elderly. Vivo 19(3):643–652Google Scholar
  78. Takahashi TA, Johnson KM (2015) Menopause. Med Clin North Am 99(3):521–534CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. Tur E (1997) Physiology of the skin – differences between women and men. Clin Dermatol 15(1):5–16CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. Tyler KH (2015) Physiological skin changes during pregnancy. Clin Obstet Gynecol 58(1):119–124CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. Varade RS, Burkemper NM (2013) Cutaneous fungal infections in the elderly. Clin Geriatr Med 29(2):461–478CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. Villanueva C, Argente J (2014) Pathology or normal variant: what constitutes a delay in puberty? Horm Res Paediatr 82(4):213–221CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. Vora RV, Gupta R, Mehta MJ, Chaudhari AH, Pilani AP, Patel N (2014) Pregnancy and skin. J Family Med Prim Care 3(4):318–324CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. Wei C, Davis N, Honour J, Crowne E (2017) The investigation of children and adolescents with abnormalities of pubertal timing. Ann Clin Biochem 54(1):20–32CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. Weller RB, Hunter HJA, Mann MW (2014a) Infections: viral infections. In: Weller RB, Hunter HJA, Mann MW (eds) Clinical dermatology, 5th edn. Wiley-Blackwell, Somerset, pp 227–238Google Scholar
  86. Weller RB, Hunter HJA, Mann MW (2014b) Skin tumours. In: Weller RB, Hunter HJA, Mann MW (eds) Clinical dermatology, 5th edn. Wiley-Blackwell, Somerset, pp 278–310Google Scholar
  87. Yaar M, Gilchrest BA (2012) Aging of skin. In: Goldsmith LA, Katz SI, Gilchrest BA, Paller AS, Leffell DJ, Wolff K (eds) Fitzpatrick’s dermatology in general medicine, 8th edn. The McGraw-Hill Companies, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  88. Yancey KB (2005) The pathophysiology of autoimmune blistering disorders. J Clin Invest 115(4):825–828CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. Young GL, Jewell D (2000) Creams for preventing stretch marks in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2:CD000066Google Scholar
  90. Zuniga R, Nguyen T (2013) Skin conditions: common skin rashes in infants. FP Essent 407:31–41PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Serena Gianfaldoni
    • 1
    Email author
  • Georgi Tchernev
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Michael Tirant
    • 1
    • 4
  • Uwe Wollina
    • 5
  • David Ernesto Castillo
    • 6
  • Katlein França
    • 1
    • 7
  • Torello Lotti
    • 1
  1. 1.Dermatologic DepartmentUniversity of Rome “G. Marconi”RomeItaly
  2. 2.Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Dermatologic SurgeryMedical Institute of Ministry of Interior (MVR-Sofia)SofiaBulgaria
  3. 3.Onkoderma- Private Policlinic for Dermatology, Venereology and Dermatologic SurgerySofiaBulgaria
  4. 4.Psoriasis & Skin ClinicMelbourneAustralia
  5. 5.Department of Dermatology and AllergologyMunicipal Hospital Dresden, Academic Teaching Hospital of the Technical University of DresdenDresdenGermany
  6. 6.Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous SurgeryUniversity of Miami Miller School of MedicineMiamiUSA
  7. 7.Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Institute for Bioethics and Health PolicyUniversity of Miami Miller School of MedicineMiamiUSA

Personalised recommendations