Treatment of Diabetes with Lifestyle Changes: Diet
The present chapter critically reviews scientific evidence on the impact of the diet and its components on the metabolic control, cardiovascular risk factors, and morbidity/mortality in diabetic patients.
Three main topics are included in this chapter: (1) the effects of dietary treatment on body weight control in diabetic patients; (2) the optimal dietary composition in order to achieve blood glucose control and reduce other cardiovascular risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes; (3) the effects of lifestyle modifications and dietary changes on the risk to develop type 2 diabetes.
The overall body of evidence seems to confirm the efficacy of current recommendations for diabetes management. However, although dietary strategies based on structured interventions are often successful, particularly in relation to body weight control, they are not easily applicable in clinical practice and, therefore, more feasible strategies should be identified.
In addition, further intervention studies focused on the effects of lifestyle on hard endpoints in diabetic subjects are needed to definitively prove the role of diet in the prevention of both cardiovascular and microvascular complications in these patients over and above their impact on weight reduction.
KeywordsHealthy diet Diabetes Body weight control Dietary fat Fiber Glycemic index
List of Abbreviations
Body Mass Index
Diabetes Prevention Study
European Association for the Study of Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes
High density lipoprotein-cholesterol
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
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