Advertisement

Patient Education and Empowerment

  • Martha M. Funnell
  • Robert M. Anderson
  • Gretchen A. Piatt
Reference work entry
Part of the Endocrinology book series (ENDOCR)

Abstract

The clinical care of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes has changed dramatically in recent years. While new therapies and technological advances improve outcomes in diabetes, these can also increase the burden of daily care for people with diabetes and their family members. In order to use these technologies effectively, patients need the information required for advanced decision-making, the skills to incorporate self-management into their lives, and the self-efficacy to assume this level of responsibility. Diabetes self-management education, on-going support, and patient empowerment are strategies that can be used to facilitate patient engagement and active participation, prevent acute complications, and ultimately to improve long-term outcomes and quality of life among people with diabetes.

Keywords

Self-management Diabetes self-management education Diabetes self-management support Patient empowerment Self-directed goal setting 

References

  1. AlSayah F, Majumdar SR, Williams B, Robertson S, Johnson JA. Health literacy and health outcomes in diabetes: a systematic review. J Gen Intern Med. 2013;28:444–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Diabetes Association. Standards in Medical Care in Diabetes-2017. Diabetes Care. 2017;40(Suppl 1):S1–S107.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson RM, Funnell MM, Arnold MS. Using the empowerment approach to help patients change behavior. In: Anderson BJ, Rubin RR, editors. Practical psychology for diabetes clinicians. 2nd ed. Alexandria: American Diabetes Association; 2002. p. 3–12.Google Scholar
  4. Bailey SC, Brega AG, Crutchfield TM, Elasy T, Herr H, et al. Update on health literacy and diabetes. Diabetes Educ. 2014;40:581–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barlow J, Wright C, Sheasby J, Turner A, Hainsworth J. Self-management approaches for people with chronic conditions: a review. Patient Educ Couns. 2002;48:177–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beck J, Greenwood DA, Blanton L, Bollinger ST, Butcher MK. Et on behalf of the 2017 standards revision task force. 2017 national for diabetes self-education and support. Diabetes Care. 2017;40:1409–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brunisholz KD, Briot P, Hamilton S, Joy EA, Lomax M, Barton N, Cunningham R, Savitz LA, Cannon W. Diabetes self-management education improves quality of care and clinical outcomes determined by a diabetes bundle measure. J Multidiscip Healthc. 2014;7:533–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Duncan I, Birkmeyer C, Coughlin S, Li Q, Sherr D, Boren S. Assessing the value of diabetes education. Diabetes Educ. 2009;35:752–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Funnell MM, Anderson RM. Empowerment and self-management education. Clin Diabetes. 2004;22:123–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Funnell MM, Piatt GA. Incorporating diabetes self-management education into your practice: when, what, and how. J Nurs Pract. 2017;13:468–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Funnell MM, Anderson RM, Arnold MS, Barr PA, Donnelly MB, Johnson PD, Taylor-Moon D, White NH. Empowerment: an idea whose time has come in diabetes patient education. Diabetes Educ. 1991;17:37–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Funnell MM, Anderson RM, Piatt GA. Empowerment, engagement and shared decisions in the real world of clinical practice. Consultant. 2014;53:358–62.Google Scholar
  13. Funnell MM, Bootle S, Stuckey HL. The diabetes attitudes wishes and needs second study. Clinical Diabetes. 2015;33:32–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Glasgow RE, Davis CL, Funnell MM, Beck A. Implementing practical interventions to support chronic illness self-management. Jt Comm J Qual Saf. 2003;29:563–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Haas L, Maryniuk M, Beck J, Cox CE, Duker P, Edwards L, Fisher E, Hanson L, Kent D, Kolb L, McLaughlin S, Orzeck E, Piette JD, Rhinehart AS, Rothman R, Sklaroff S, Tomky D, Youssef G. National standards for diabetes self-management education and support. Diabetes Care. 2012;35:2393–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Health Literacy Universal Precautions Toolkit, 2nd Edition. Content last reviewed February 2015. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville. http://www.ahrq.gov/professionals/quality-patient-safety/quality-resources/tools/literacy-toolkit/healthlittoolkit2.html. Last accessed 10/11/17.
  17. Heinrich E, Schaper NC, de Vries NK. Self-management interventions for type 2 diabetes: a systematic review. Eur Diabetes Nurs. 2010;7:71–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. International Diabetes Federation. Standards for diabetes self-management education 2009. http://d-net.idf.org/en/library/123-international-standards-for-diabetes-education.html?tag=52-self-management. Last accessed 2/12/16.
  19. Li R, Shrestha SS, Lipman R, Burrows NR, Kolb LE, Rutledge S. Diabetes self-management education and training among privately insured persons with newly diagnosed diabetes – United States 2011–2012. MMWR. 2014;63:1045–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Marrero DG, Ard J, Delamater AM, Peragallo-Dittko V, Mayer-Davis EJ, Nwankwo R, Fisher EB. Twenty-first century behavioral medicine: a context for empowering clinicians and patients with diabetes. A consensus report. Diabetes Care. 2013;36:463–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. National Diabetes Education Program. Guiding principles for diabetes care. 2015. http://ndep.nih.gov/hcp-businesses-and-schools/guiding-principles/. Last accessed 2.4.16.
  22. Nicolucci A, Burns KK, Holt RIG, on behalf of the DAWN2 Study Group, et al. Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs second study (DAWN2). Cross-national benchmarking of diabetes-related psycho- social outcomes for people with diabetes. Diabet Med. 2013;30:767–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Norris SL, Lau J, Schmid CH, Engelgau MM. Self-management education for adults with type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of the effect on glycemic control. Diabetes Care. 2002;25:1159–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pal K, Eastwoood SV, Michie S, Farmer A, Barnard ML, et al. Computer-based interventions to improve self-management in adults with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Care. 2014;27:1759–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Peyrot M, Egede LE, Campos C, Cannon AJ, Funnell MM, Hsu WC, Ruggerio L, Siminerio LM, Stuckey HL. Ethnic differences in psychological outcomes among people with diabetes: USA results from the second Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs (DAWN2) study. Curr Med Res Opin. 2014;30:2241–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Pillay J, Armstrong MJ, Butalia S, Donovan LE, Sigal RJ, et al. Behavioral programs for type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and network meta-analysis for effect moderation. Ann Intern Med. 2015a;163:848–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pillay J, Armstrong MJ, Butalia S, Donovan LE, Sigal RJ, et al. Behavioral programs for type 1 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and network meta-analysis for effect moderation. Ann Intern Med. 2015b;163:836–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Powers MA, Bardsley J, Cypress M, Duker P, Funnell MM, Fischl AH, Maryniuk MD, Siminerio L, Vivian E. Diabetes self-management education and support in type 2 diabetes: a joint position statement of the American Diabetes Association, the American Association of Diabetes Educators and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Diabetes Care. 2015;38:1372–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Schillinger D, Grumbach K, Piette J, Wang F, Osmond D, Daher C, et al. Association of health literacy with diabetes outcomes. JAMA. 2002;288:475–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Schillinger D, Piette J, Grumbach K, Wang F, Wilson C, Daher C, Leong-Grotz K, Castrto C, Bindman AB. Closing the loop. Physician communication with diabetic patients who have low literacy. Arch Intern Med. 2003;163:83–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Steinsbekk A, Rygg LO, Lisulo M, Rise MB, Fretheim A. Group based diabetes self-management education compared to routine treatment for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A systematic review with meta-analysis. BMC Health Serv Res. 2012;12:213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Veroff D, Marr A, Wennberg DE. Enhanced support for shared decision-making reduced costs of care for patients with preference-sensitive conditions. Health Aff (Millwood). 2013;32(2):285–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martha M. Funnell
    • 1
  • Robert M. Anderson
    • 1
  • Gretchen A. Piatt
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Learning Health SciencesThe University of Michigan Medical SchoolAnn ArborUSA

Personalised recommendations