Methods to Assess In Vivo Insulin Sensitivity and Insulin Secretion
The assessments of insulin sensitivity/resistance and of insulin secretion/beta cell function in humans are still significant challenges. The interest for these traits stems from their proved, or presumed, implications in a great number of pathological conditions, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), Alzheimer’s disease. A wide number of tests and surrogate indexes have been developed and applied in many experimental and observational settings to gauge exact values for each of these two traits. In this chapter, the general principles underlying the assessments of insulin sensitivity and of beta cell function are reviewed, and the most popular tests are described with their pros and cons.
KeywordsBeta cell function Insulin secretion Insulin sensitivity/resistance Diabetes Mellitus Clinical physiology
We thank prof. Stefano Del Prato, prof. Anna Solini, prof. Enzo Bonora and prof. Ivana Zavaroni for useful discussions about the topics of this chapter. This work was supported in part with funds of the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) PRIN 2015 2015373Z39_004 and with University of Parma research funds, both to RCB, and with University of Verona research funds to MT, and with University of Parma research funds to ADC.
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