Advertisement

Linguistic Foundations of Heritage Language Development from the Perspective of Romance Languages in Germany

  • Cristina FloresEmail author
  • Tanja Kupisch
  • Esther Rinke
Reference work entry
Part of the Springer International Handbooks of Education book series (SIHE)

Abstract

This paper discusses the role of different factors determining the linguistic competence of heritage speakers (HSs) based on examples from speakers who speak a Romance language (French, Italian, Portuguese, or Spanish) as heritage language (HL) and German as the environmental language. Since the relative amount of contact with the HL and the environmental language may vary during the acquisition process, the role of language dominance (in terms of relative language proficiency) is of particular interest for HL development. In addition to dominance (and related to it), cross-linguistic influence (CLI) may have an influence on the outcome of HL acquisition. Finally, quality and quantity of input also determine HL acquisition and will be discussed in connection with heritage language education.

Keywords

Romance heritage speakers Language dominance Cross-linguistic The role of input 

References

  1. Argyri, E., & Sorace, A. (2007). Crosslinguistic influence and language dominance in older bilingual children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 10, 77–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Berman, R. A. (1979). The (re)emergence of a bilingual: Case-study of a Hebrew-English child. Working Papers in Bilingualism, 19, 157–179.Google Scholar
  3. Bernardini, P., & Schlyter, S. (2004). Growing syntactic structure and code-mixing in the weaker language: The Ivy Hypothesis. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 7(1), 49–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bianchi, G. (2013). Gender in Italian-German bilinguals: A comparison with German L2 learners of Italian. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 16(3), 538–557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Birdsong, D. (2014). Dominance and age in Bilingualism. Applied Linguistics, 35(4), 374–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bohman, T., Bedore, L., Peña, E., Mendez-Perez, A., & Gillam, R. B. (2010). What you hear and what you say: Language performance in Spanish–English bilinguals. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 13(3), 325–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bylund, E., & Díaz, M. (2012). The effects of heritage language instruction on first language proficiency. A psycholinguistic perspective. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 5, 593–609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cantone, K. (2007). Code-switching in bilingual children. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  9. Dabrowska, E. (2012). Different speakers, different grammars. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 2(3), 219–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Di Venanzio, L., Schmitz, K., & Rumpf, A. L. (2012). Objektrealisierungen und -auslassungen bei transitiven Verben im Spanischen von Herkunftssprechern in Deutschland. Linguistische Berichte, 232, 437–461.Google Scholar
  11. Di Venanzio, L., Schmitz, K., & Rumpf, A. L. (2016). Objects of transitive verbs in Italian as a heritage language in contact with German. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism. doi:10.1075/lab.13041.divissn 1879–9264.Google Scholar
  12. Dunn, A. L., & Fox Tree, J. E. (2009). A quick, gradient Bilingual dominance scale. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 12, 273–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fischer, S., & Rinke, E. (2013). Explaining the variability of clitic doubling across Romance: A diachronic account. Linguistische Berichte, 236, 255–272.Google Scholar
  14. Flores, C. (2015a). Losing a language in childhood: A longitudinal case study on language attrition. Journal of Child Language, 42(3), 562–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Flores, C. (2015b). Understanding heritage language acquisition. Some contributions from the research on heritage speakers of European Portuguese. Lingua, 164, 251–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Flores, C., & Barbosa, P. (2014). When reduced input leads to delayed acquisition: A study on the acquisition of clitic placement by Portuguese heritage speakers. International Journal of Bilingualism, 18(3), 304–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Flores, C., & Rato, A. (2016). Global accent in the Portuguese speech of heritage returnees. Journal of Heritage Language, 13(2), 161–183.Google Scholar
  18. Flores, C., Rinke, E. (2015). Um estudo comparativo sobre o conhecimento do sistema pronominal português por parte de Falantes de Português Língua de Herança e Falantes de uma Língua Segunda. In MA Marques, X Rei, (Eds.), Novas perspetivas linguísticas no espaço galego-português (Monografia 10, pp. 11–33). Corunha: Universidade da Corunha.Google Scholar
  19. Flores, C., Santos, A. L., Marques, R., & Jesus, A. (2016). Age and input effects in the acquisition of mood in Heritage Portuguese. Journal of Child Language. doi:10.1017/S0305000916000222.Google Scholar
  20. Flores, C., Rinke, E., & Azevedo, C. (in press). Object realization across generations. A closer look on the spontaneous speech of Portuguese first and second generation migrants. In E Domenico (Ed.), Complexity in acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars.Google Scholar
  21. Gathercole, V. C. M., & Thomas, E. M. (2009). Bilingual first-language development: Dominant language takeover, threatened minority language take-up. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 12(2), 213–237.Google Scholar
  22. Gawlitzek-Maiwald, I., & Tracy, R. (1996). Bilingual bootstrapping. Linguistics, 34, 901–926.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Genesee, F. (1989). Early bilingual development: One language or two? Journal of Child Language, 16(1), 161–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Genesee, F., Nicoladis, E., & Paradis, J. (1995). Language differentiation in early bilingual development. Journal of Child Language, 22, 611–631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ingram, D. (2002). The measurement of whole-word productions. Journal of Child Language, 29(4), 713–733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kallmeyer, W., & Keim, I. (2003). Linguistic variation and the construction of social identity in a German-Turkish setting. A case study of an immigrant youth group in Mannheim, Germany. In J. Androutsopoulos & A. Georgakopoulou (Eds.), Discourse constructions of youth identities (pp. 29–46). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kehoe, M. (2002). Developing vowel systems as a window to bilingual phonology. International Journal of Bilingualism, 6, 315–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kehoe, M., Trujillo, C., & Lleó, C. (2001). Bilingual phonological acquisition: An analysis of syllable structure and VOT. In K. Cantone & M. O. Hinzelin (Eds.), Proceedings of the colloquium on structure, acquisition and change of Grammars: Phonological and syntactic aspects, Arbeiten zur Mehrsprachigkeit 27 (pp. 38–54). Hamburg: Universität Hamburg.Google Scholar
  29. Kehoe, M., Lleó, C., & Rakow, M. (2004). Voice onset time in bilingual German-Spanish children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 7(1), 71–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kupisch, T. (2007). Determiners in bilingual German–Italian children: What they tell us about the relation between language influence and language dominance. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 10(1), 57–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kupisch, T. (2012). Generic subjects in the Italian of early German-Italian bilinguals and German learners of Italian as a second language. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 15(4), 736–756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kupisch, T. (2014). Adjective placement in simultaneous bilinguals (German-Italian) and the concept of cross-linguistic overcorrection. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 17(1), 222–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kupisch, T., Barton, D., Hailer, K., Kostogryz, E., Lein, T., Stangen, I., & van de Weijer, J. (2014). Foreign accent in adult simultaneous bilinguals. Heritage Language Journal, 11(2), 123–150.Google Scholar
  34. Kupisch T, Klaschik E. Language separation and gender marking in bi-dialectal Italian-Venetian children. Ms, University of Konstanz/the Arctic University of Norway/University of Hamburg; forthcoming.Google Scholar
  35. Kupisch, T., & Rothman, J. (2016). Terminology matters! Why difference is not incompleteness and how early child bilinguals are heritage speakers. International Journal of Bilingualism. Online First. doi:10.1177/1367006916654355.Google Scholar
  36. Kupisch, T., & van de Weijer, J. (2016). The role of the childhood environment for language dominance: A case study of adult simultaneous bilingual speakers of German and French. In C. Silva Corvalán & J. Treffers-Daller (Eds.), Language dominance in bilinguals: Issues of measurement and operationalization (pp. 174–194). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Leopold, W. (1949). Speech development of a bilingual child (Volume 4). Evanston: Northwestern University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Lleó, C. (2002). The role of markedness in the acquisition of complex prosodic structures by German-Spanish bilinguals. International Journal of Bilingualism, 6, 291–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lleó, C., & Rakow, M. (2005). Markedness effects in voiced stop spirantization in bilingual German-Spanish children. In J. Cohen, K. T. McAlister, K. Rolstad, & J. MacSwan (Eds.), Proceedings of the 4th international symposium on bilingualism (pp. 1353–1371). CD Rom: Cascadilla Press.Google Scholar
  40. Lleó, C., Kuchenbrandt, I., Kehoe, M., & Trujillo, C. (2003). Syllable final consonants in Spanish and German monolingual and bilingual acquisition. In N. Müller (Ed.), (Non)Vulnerable domains in bilingualism (pp. 191–220). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lloyd-Smith, A., Gyllstad, H., & Kupisch, T. (2016). Transfer into L3 English. Global accent in German-dominant heritage speakers of Turkish. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism. Published online. doi:10.1075/lab.15013.llo.Google Scholar
  42. Meisel, J. (1989). Early differentiation of languages in bilingual children. In K. Hyltenstam, & L. Obler (Eds.), Bilingualism across the lifespan. Aspects of acquisition, maturity and loss (pp. 13–40). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Melo-Pfeifer, S. (2015). The role of the family in heritage language use and learning: Impact on heritage language policies. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 18(1), 26–44.Google Scholar
  44. Montrul, S. (2010). Current issues in heritage language acquisition. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 30, 3–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Montrul, S., & Ionin, T. (2010). Transfer effects in the interpretation of definite articles by Spanish heritage speakers. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 13(4), 449–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Müller, N., & Hulk, A. (2001). Crosslinguistic influence in bilingual language acquisition: Italian and French as recipient languages. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 4, 1–21.Google Scholar
  47. Paradis, J., & Genesee, F. (1996). Syntactic acquisition in bilingual children: Autonomous or interdependent? Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 18(1), 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Pires, A., & Rothman, J. (2009). Disentangling sources of incomplete acquisition: An explanation for competence divergence across heritage grammars. International Journal of Bilingualism, 13(2), 211–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rato, A., Flores, C., Neves, D., & Oliveira, D. (2015). A competência fonológica de falantes bilingues luso-alemães: um estudo sobre sotaque global, compreensibilidade e inteligibilidade da sua língua de herança. Diacrítica, 29(1), 297–326.Google Scholar
  50. Rinke, E., & Flores, C. (2014). Heritage Portuguese bilinguals’ morphosyntactic knowledge of clitics. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 17(4), 681–699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Rodina, Y., & Westergaard, M. (2015). Grammatical gender in bilingual Norwegian–Russian acquisition: The role of input and transparency. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition. doi:10.1017/S1366728915000668.Google Scholar
  52. Santos, A. L., & Flores, C. (2016). Comparing heritage speakers and late L2-learners of European Portuguese: Verb movement, VP ellipsis and adverb placement. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 6(3), 308–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Schlyter, S. (1994). Early morphology in French as the weaker language in Swedish French. Scandinavian Working Papers in Bilingualism, 9, 67–87.Google Scholar
  54. Schmitz, K., di Venanzio, L., & Scherger, A. L. (2016). Null and overt subjects in Italian and Spanish heritage speakers in Germany. Lingua. doi:10.1016/j.lingua.2016.04.004.Google Scholar
  55. Serratrice, L., Sorace, A., Filiaci, F., & Baldo, M. (2009). Bilingual children’s sensitivity to specificity and genericity: Evidence from metalinguistic awareness. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 12, 239–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Stöhr, A., Akpinar, D., Bianchi, G., & Kupisch, T. (2012). Gender marking in Italian-German heritage speakers and L2-learners of German. In K. Braunmueller & C. Gabriel (Eds.), Multilingual individuals and multilingual societies (MIMS) (pp. 153–170). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Suchtelen, P. (2014). Maintained and acquired heritage Spanish in the Netherlands: The case of dative constructions. Applied Linguistics Review, 5(2), 375–400.Google Scholar
  58. Thomas, E. M., Williams, N., Jones, L., Davies, S., & Binks, H. (2014). Acquiring complex structures under minority language conditions: Bilingual acquisition of plural morphology in Welsh. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 17(3), 478–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Unsworth, S. (2013). Assessing the role of current and cumulative exposure in simultaneous bilingual acquisition: The case of Dutch gender. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 16(1), 86–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Unsworth, S. (2015). Quantity and quality of language input in bilingual language development. In E. Nicoladis & S. Montanari (Eds.), Lifespan perspectives on bilingualism (pp. 136–196). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  61. Volterra, V., & Taeschner, T. (1978). The acquisition and development of language by bilingual children. Journal of Child Language, 5, 311–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Yip, V., & Matthews, S. (2000). Syntactic transfer in a Cantonese–English bilingual child. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 3, 193–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Yip, V., & Matthews, S. (2006). Assessing language dominance in bilingual acquisition: A case for mean length utterance differentials. Language Assessment Quarterly, 3(2), 97–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departmento de Estudos Germanísticos e Eslavos (DEGE)Universidade do MinhoBragaPortugal
  2. 2.Universität Konstanz and the Arctic University of NorwayConstanceGermany
  3. 3.Goethe-Universität FrankfurtFrankfurtGermany

Personalised recommendations