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Membrane Homeostasis upon Nutrient (C, N, P) Limitation

  • F. Schubotz
Living reference work entry
Part of the Handbook of Hydrocarbon and Lipid Microbiology book series (HHLM)

Abstract

Natural environments are dynamic systems where organisms have to constantly acclimate to fluctuations in external conditions, including the bioavailability of essential nutrients carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P). Membrane lipid plasticity plays an important role to adjust to these environmental challenges by either reducing the cellular need of these macronutrients or to help protect the cell and keep it viable during a prolonged state of reduced energy supply. When P limited, many organisms are able to replace their phospholipids with non-phosphorus containing glycolipids or aminolipids, liberating P for other cellular processes. Under N depletion, a common stress response is the increased production of triacylglycerol (TAG) lipids that serve as energy and carbon storage until nutrients become available again. During severe C starvation, the cell switches to survival mode and membrane lipids are remodeled to conserve energy and stabilize the cell against external stressors, but are also degraded and serve as an endogenous carbon and energy supply. These homeostatic adjustments are found among all domains of life with different specificities and play decisive roles during natural selection of populations in marine and terrestrial ecosystems.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported in part by the Central Research Development Fund of the University of Bremen, Germany.

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.MARUM and Department of GeosciencesUniversity of BremenBremenGermany

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