Synchrotron Capabilities to Understand Microstructure of Additively Manufactured Materials: Challenges and Opportunities for Modeling and Simulations

  • Anthony D. Rollett
Living reference work entry


From the perspective of modeling and simulation, additive manufacturing is an unambiguously multiscale problem. Regardless of whether the 3D printing is accomplished via melting, or polymerization, or with binders, the scale of the process is submillimeter, which means that dozens to thousands of layers are accumulated while making a part. Variations in geometry mean that the path followed by the light or electron beam (except in the case of whole layer-based illumination) results in highly variable time intervals between successive overlapping heat inputs. Particularly in the case of processes that melt powders, this can result in deviations from the expected heat input that lead to defects. Taking microstructure to be the totality of the structure of crystal(s) and defects, this means that using simulation to predict microstructure requires calculations at multiple scales: it is not feasible to simulate microstructure development at the submillimeter scale with, e.g., grains, orientations, and pores, when the part extends to centimeters in all dimensions. Synchrotron radiation is well suited to probing the unit processes involved in additive manufacturing, and so a focus on the submillimeter scale of materials processing provides a useful framework for evaluating needs and prospects for modeling and simulation.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Materials Science & EngineeringCarnegie Mellon UniversityPittsburghUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • John Sarrao
    • 1
  • Marius Stan
  1. 1.Los Alamos National LaboratoryLos AlamosUSA

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