Treatment of Clinical Stage II (CS II) Disease in Testicular Cancer
Testicular cancer represents the most common solid malignancy of young men aged 15–40 years. Germ cell tumors are best divided into those with pure seminoma and non-seminoma histology. The treatment of metastatic testicular germ cell tumors is based on risk stratification according to histological feature, clinical stages and IGCCCG classification. Clinical stage II disease (CS II) is defined by the presence of testicular cancer in the orchiectomy specimen and imaging studies of the abdomen and pelvis that show positive regional lymph nodes. Other potential sites of metastasis, such as the chest, are free of disease. About 10–30 percent of patients with seminoma and non-seminoma have stage CS II disease at clinical presentation. These patients with lymphatic metastasis should be treated with individualized risk-stratification and within a multidisciplinary approach of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery at centres of excellence.
- Culine S, et al. Randomized trial comparing bleomycin/etoposide/cisplatin with alternating cisplatin/cyclophosphamide/doxorubicin and vinblastine/bleomycin regimens of chemotherapy for patients with intermediate- and poor-risk metastatic nonseminomatous germ cell tumors: Genito-Urinary Group of the French Federation of Cancer Centers Trial T93MP. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26(3):421–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar