Urothelial Carcinoma In Situ and Treatment of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Failures
Despite its superficial growth, urothelial carcinoma in situ is an aggressive disease with high recurrence and progression rates. Macroscopic as well as microscopic diagnosis is challenging.
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the most effective therapy for high-risk bladder cancer. In case of failure no other intravesical therapy has shown convincing results to be used in clinical routine. Radical cystectomy remains from an oncologic point of view the most effective therapy.
- Arends TJH, et al. Results of a randomised controlled trial comparing intravesical chemohyperthermia with mitomycin C versus bacillus Calmette-Guérin for adjuvant treatment of patients with intermediate- and high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Eur Urol. 2016;69(6):1046–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cambier S, et al. EORTC Nomograms and risk groups for predicting recurrence, progression, and disease-specific and overall survival in non-muscle-invasive stage ta-T1 urothelial bladder cancer patients treated with 1-3 years of maintenance bacillus Calmette-Guérin. Eur Urol. 2016;69(1):60–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lopez-Beltran A, et al. Dysplasia and carcinoma in situ of the urinary bladder. Anal Quant Cytopathol Histopathol. 2015;37(1):29–38.Google Scholar
- Moch H, et al. WHO classification of tumours of the urinary system and male genital organs. 4th ed. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2016.Google Scholar
- Sauter G, et al. Tumours of the urinary system: non-invasive urothelial neoplasias. In: Sauter G, Amin M, et al., editors. WHO classification of classification of tumours of the urinary system and male genital organs. IARCC Press: Lyon. 2004.Google Scholar
- Shariat SF, Palapattu GS, Karakiewicz PI, Rogers CG, Vazina A, Bastian PJ, Schoenberg MP, Lerner SP, Sagalowsky AI, Lotan Y. Concomitant carcinoma in situ is a feature of aggressive disease in patients with organ-confined TCC at radical cystectomy. Eur Urol. 2007a;51(1):152–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar