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Biological Fibrillar Adhesives: Functional Principles and Biomimetic Applications

  • Stanislav N. Gorb
  • Lars Heepe
Living reference work entry

Abstract

Specific mechanisms of adhesion found in nature are discussed in the previous chapter (chapter “Bioadhesives”). One of the most discussed biological systems in the last decade are the so-called fibrillar adhesives of insects, spiders, and geckos. These systems are adapted for dynamic adhesion of animals during locomotion and, therefore, have some extraordinary properties, such as (1) directionality, (2) preload by shear, (3) quick detachment by peeling, (4) low dependence on the substrate chemistry, (5) reduced ability to contamination and self-cleaning, and (6) the absence or strong reduction of self-adhesion. In the present chapter, we review functional principles of such biological systems in various animal groups with an emphasis on insects and discuss their biomimetic potential. The data on ultrastructure and mechanics of materials of adhesive pads, movements during contact formation and breakage, the role of the fluid in the contact between the pad and substrate are presented here. The main goal is to demonstrate how a comparative experimental approach in studies of biological systems aids in the development of novel adhesive materials and systems. The microstructured adhesive systems, inspired by studies of biological systems of insects, spiders, and geckos, are also shortly reviewed.

Keywords

Attachment Biomimetics Bioinspired surfaces Microstructure Fibrillar adhesives Dry adhesives Dynamic adhesion Reversible adhesion Bioadhesion Microfabrication Gecko Insect Spider 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Functional Morphology and BiomechanicsZoological Institute at the University of KielKielGermany

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