Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) is a complex clinicopathologic condition that develops secondary to autonomous production of gastrin and is characterized by massive acid secretion and severe peptic ulcer disease.
The autonomous hypergastrinemia leads to persistent and massive secretion of acid and pepsin, giving rise to multiple refractory peptic ulcers. Abdominal pain, primarily related to the ulcers, is observed in the majority of patients and frequently is accompanied by weight loss. Severe esophagitis and symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease, as well as duodenojejunitis and duodenal ulcers, are common findings. In addition, diarrhea is observed in 30–70% of patients, with malabsorption and steatorrhea resulting from concentrated acid entering the small bowel. The presenting symptoms are similar in the 25% of patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome who have MEN-1 syndrome, although they may be present at a younger age and more...
References and Further Reading
- Berna, M. J., et al. (2008). A prospective study of gastric carcinoids and enterochromaffin-like cell changes in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: Identification of risk factors. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 93(5), 1582–1591.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar