Pathology of the Gastrointestinal Tract

2017 Edition
| Editors: Fátima Carneiro, Paula Chaves, Arzu Ensari

Diaphragmatic Hernia

  • Miguel Serrano
  • Susana Mão de Ferro
Reference work entry


Acquired diaphragmatic hernia; Congenital diaphragmatic hernia


A hernia is a protrusion of the abdominal cavity beyond its fascial or muscular walls through fascial or muscular openings or defects. Diaphragmatic hernias (DH) include acquired hernias through the esophageal hiatus and hernias through post-traumatic or congenital (such as the foramina of Bochdalek or Morgagni) defects in the diaphragm. The majority of DH are sliding hernias of the stomach through the esophageal hiatus.

Congenital and post-traumatic DH will be reviewed here. Hiatal hernias are discussed elsewhere (see entry on “ Diaphragmatic Hernia”).

Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia

Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a developmental defect in the diaphragm that allows abdominal viscera to herniate into the chest, thereby interfering with normal lung development.

The ventral part of the diaphragm is derived from the septum transversum, which in the early embryo separates the heart from the...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Blitz, M., & Louie, B. E. (2009). Chronic traumatic diaphragmatic hernia. Thoracic Surgery Clinics, 19, 491–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Gaxiola, A., Varon, J., & Valladolid, G. (2009). Congenital diaphragmatic hernia: An overview of the etiology and current management. Acta Paediatrica, 98, 621–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Hanna, W. C., & Ferri, L. E. (2009). Acute traumatic diaphragmatic injury. Thoracic Surgery Clinics, 19, 485–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Tovar, J. A. (2012). Congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases, 7, 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Waag, K. L., Loff, S., Zahn, K., et al. (2008). Congenital diaphragmatic hernia: A modern day approach. Seminars in Pediatric Surgery, 17, 244–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GastroenterologyIPOLFG, E.P.E.LisbonPortugal