Acquired diaphragmatic hernia; Congenital diaphragmatic hernia
A hernia is a protrusion of the abdominal cavity beyond its fascial or muscular walls through fascial or muscular openings or defects. Diaphragmatic hernias (DH) include acquired hernias through the esophageal hiatus and hernias through post-traumatic or congenital (such as the foramina of Bochdalek or Morgagni) defects in the diaphragm. The majority of DH are sliding hernias of the stomach through the esophageal hiatus.
Congenital and post-traumatic DH will be reviewed here. Hiatal hernias are discussed elsewhere (see entry on “ Diaphragmatic Hernia”).
Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a developmental defect in the diaphragm that allows abdominal viscera to herniate into the chest, thereby interfering with normal lung development.
The ventral part of the diaphragm is derived from the septum transversum, which in the early embryo separates the heart from the...