Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor
GIST is the English acronym for Gastro Intestinal Stromal Tumor
It is a mesenchymal tumor, generally with immunohistochemistry expression of CD117-cluster of differentiation molecule 117/KIT (kinase-tyrosine receptor of stem cell factor), driven frequently by KIT or PDGFA (platelet-derived growth factor alpha) activation mutations, that occurs along the gastrointestinal tract, rarely extra-gastrointestinal tract (E-GIST), and displays a spectrum of benign to malignant clinical behavior.
Annual incidence of GISTs is 11–19.6/million population (Corless et al. 2011).
GISTs occur typically in middle age to old adults (median age: ∼60–65 years), and rarely in childhood and young adults (Miettinnen et al. 2010).
No distinct differences in incidence by gender, probably slightly more common in males.
GISTs occur most commonly in the stomach (60%), jejunum and ileum (30%), duodenum (5%), colon rectum (<5%), and rarely in other...
References and Further Reading
- Heinrich, M., Corless, C. L., Demetri, G. D., von Mehren, M., Joensuu, H., McGreevey, L. S., Chen, C. J., Van den Abbeele, A. D., Druker, B. J., Roberts, P. J., Singer, S., Fletcher, C. D., Silberman, S., Dimitrijevic, S., & Fletcher, J. A. (2003). Kinase mutations and imatinib response in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal tumor. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 21, 4342–4349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Martinho, O., Gouveia, A., Silva, P., Pimenta, A., Reis, R. M., & Lopes, J. M. (2009). Loss of RKIP expression is associated with poor survival in GISTs. Virchows Archives, 455, 277–284.Google Scholar
- Miettinnen, M., Fetsch, J. F., Sobin, L. H., & Lasota, J. (2006). Gastrointestinal stromal tumors in patients with neurofibromatosis: a clinicopathologic and molecular genetic study of 45 cases. American Journal of Surgical Pathology, 30, 90–96.Google Scholar
- Miettinnen, M., Fletcher, C. D. M., Kindblom, L.-G., & Tsui, W. M. S. (2010). Mesenchymal tumours of the oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon and rectum. In F. T. Bosman, F. Carneiro, R. H. Hruban, & N. E. Theise (Eds.), WHO classification of tumours of the digestive system. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (pp. 35–36, 74–76,115–116, and 181–182, respectively).Google Scholar