Pathology of the Gastrointestinal Tract

2017 Edition
| Editors: Fátima Carneiro, Paula Chaves, Arzu Ensari

Gastric Heterotopia

  • Helena Baldaia
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-40560-5_1600

Synonyms

Inlet patch (upper esophagus)

Definition

Heterotopia is defined as the occurrence of normal tissue in an abnormal location. The presence of displaced gastric mucosa occurs throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, from the tongue to the rectum (Hayama et al. 2010).

The precise pathogenic mechanism is yet unknown, although a congenital origin has often been advocated (Tang et al. 2004). Other authors defend, particularly in the upper esophagus, that the gastric mucosa originates as a metaplastic end-product in response to aggressive stimuli to the local mucosa (Fenoglio-Preiser et al. 2008a). In one study, esophageal gastric heterotopia was associated with Barrett’s esophagus in 20% of the biopsies studied (Tang et al. 2004).

Gastric heterotopia can occur alone but is frequently associated with congenital anomalies. It occurs in association with duplications, diverticula (being commonly present in Meckel diverticulum), heterotopic pancreas, vertebral body defects, and...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Basseri, B., Conklin, J., Mertens, R., et al. (2009). Heterotopic gastric mucosa (inlet patch) in a patient with laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) and laryngeal carcinoma: a case report and review of literature. Diseases of the Esophagus, 22, E1–E5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Fenoglio-Preiser, C. M., Noffsinger, A. E., Stemmermann, G. N., Lantz, P. E., & Isaacson, P. G. (2008a). The nonneoplastic esophagus. In J. McGouh & J. Pine (Eds.), Gastrointestinal pathology an atlas and text (pp. 20–21). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  3. Fenoglio-Preiser, C. M., Noffsinger, A. E., Stemmermann, G. N., Lantz, P. E., & Isaacson, P. G. (2008b). The nonneoplastic colon. In J. McGouh & J. Pine (Eds.), Gastrointestinal pathology an atlas and text (p. 747). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  4. Fenoglio-Preiser, C. M., Noffsinger, A. E., Stemmermann, G. N., Lantz, P. E., & Isaacson, P. G. (2008c). The nonneoplastic small intestine. In J. McGouh & J. Pine (Eds.), Gastrointestinal pathology an atlas and text (pp. 312–313). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  5. Fu, B., & Rueda-Pedraza, M. E. (2012). Non-neoplastic disorders of the esophagus. In C. A. Iacobuzio-Donahue, E. Montgomary, & J. R. Golblum (Eds.), Gastrointestinal and liver pathology (pp. 4–7). Philadelphia: Saunders.Google Scholar
  6. Hayama, S., Suzuki, Y., Takahashi, M., et al. (2010). Heterotopic gastric mucosa in the gallbladder: Report of two cases. Surgery Today, 40, 783–787.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Sousa, J., Cabezuelo, L., Rodrigues, A., et al. (2010). Gastric heterotopia of rectum: A rare entity. Acta Médica Portuguesa, 23, 1151–1154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Tang, P., McKinley, M. J., Sporrer, M., & Kahn, E. (2004). Inlet patch: Prevalence, histologic type, and association with esophagitis, Barrett esophagus, and antritis. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, 128(4), 444–447.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Yantiss, R. K., & Antonioli, D. A. (2009). Polyps of the small intestine. In R. Odze & J. Goldblum (Eds.), Surgical pathology of the GI tract, liver, biliary tract and pancreas. Philadelphia: Saunders.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Serviço de Anatomia PatológicaCentro Hospitalar de São JoãoPortoPortugal