Neuroendocrine Tumor, Colon and Rectum
Carcinoid tumor; Endocrine neoplasm; Neuroendocrine carcinoma; Neuroendocrine neoplasm
Neuroendocrine neoplasia (NEN) is a general term including broad family of neoplasms originating in neural and endocrine structures. NEN may be localized in pure endocrine organs (thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal glands), nerve plexuses, extraadrenal paraganglia (paragangliomas), and diffuse endocrine system in different organs including gastrointestinal tract. Fourteen different cell types, producing variety of hormones, have been described as components of diffuse endocrine system. Neuroendocrine cells of diffuse endocrine system that give rise to gastrointestinal NENs are endodermally derived and originate from gastrointestinal stem cells. Neuroendocrine cells and their neoplastic counterparts secrete peptide hormones and biogenic amines. Besides, with electron microscopy, typical large neurosecretory granules and small synaptic like vesicles are shown in their cytoplasm....
References and Further Reading
- Caplin, M., Sundin, A., Nillson, O., Baum, R. P., Klose, K. J., Kelestimur, F., Plöckinger, U., Papotti, M., Salazar, R., Pascher, A., all other Barcelona Consensus Conference participants. (2012). ENETS consensus guidelines for the management of patients with digestive neuroendocrine neoplasms: Colorectal neuroendocrine neoplasms. Neuroendocrinology, 95, 88–97.Google Scholar
- Klimstra, D. S., Arnold, R., Capella, C., Kloppel, G., Komminoth, P., Solcia, E., & Rind, G. (2010). Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the colon and rectum. In T. F. Bosman, F. Carneiro, R. H. Hruban, & N. D. Theise (Eds.), WHO classification of tumors of the digestive system (pp. 174–177). Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer.Google Scholar