Pathology of the Gastrointestinal Tract

2017 Edition
| Editors: Fátima Carneiro, Paula Chaves, Arzu Ensari

Crohn’s Disease

  • Karel GeboesEmail author
Reference work entry


Regional enteritis, ileitis terminalis (the first name used in the original paper by Dr. Burrill Crohn and colleagues)


Crohn’s disease is a life-long relapsing inflammatory disease of unknown aetiology, mainly affecting the gastrointestinal tract with extraintestinal manifestations and associated immune disorders. The disease can involve different segments of the gastrointestinal tract. Various theories have been proposed for the pathogenesis of Crohn’s disease with implications for specific therapies. Genome-wide association studies identified susceptibility loci that, triggered by environmental factors, may result in a disturbed innate and adaptive immune response. Dysfunction of innate immunity includes a disturbed intestinal barrier, Paneth cell dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress, defective unfolded protein response and autophagy, impaired recognition of microbes by pattern recognition receptors, such as nucleotide-binding domain and Toll-like receptors...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Baumgart, D. C., & Sandborn, W. J. (2012). Crohn’s disease. Lancet, 380, 1590–1605.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Geboes, K., Ectors, N., D’Haens, G., & Rutgeerts, P. (1998). Is ileoscopy with biopsy worthwhile in patients presenting with symptoms of IBD. The American Journal of Gastroenterology, 93, 201–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Gledhill, A., & Dixon, M. F. (1998). Crohn’s-like reaction in diverticular disease. Gut, 42, 392–395.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Harpaz, N., & Sachar, D. B. (2006). Segmental colitis associated with diverticular disease and other IBD look-alikes. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, 40(Suppl 3), S132–S135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Hovde, O., & Moum, B. A. (2012). Epidemiology and clinical course of Crohn’s disease: Results from observational studies. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 18, 1723–1731.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Stange, E. F., Travis, S. P., Vermeire, S., Beglinger, C., Kupcinkas, L., Geboes, K., Barakauskiene, A., Villanacci, V., Von Herbay, A., Warren, B. F., Gasche, C., Tilg, H., Schreiber, S. W., Scholmerich, J., & Reinisch, W. (2006). European evidence based consensus on the diagnosis and management of Crohn’s disease: Definitions and diagnosis. Gut, 55(Suppl 1), i1–i15.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Van Assche, G., Dignass, A., Panes, J., Beaugerie, L., Karagiannis, J., Allez, M., Ochsenkühn, T., Orchard, T., Rogler, G., Louis, E., Kupcinskas, L., Mantzaris, G., Travis, S., & Stange, E. (2010). The second European evidence-based Consensus on the diagnosis and management of Crohn’s disease: Definitions and diagnosis. Journal of Crohn’s & Colitis, 4, 7–27.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PathologyN. Goormaghtig Institute, University GentGentBelgium
  2. 2.Department of PathologyKU LeuvenLeuvenBelgium