Pathology of the Gastrointestinal Tract

2017 Edition
| Editors: Fátima Carneiro, Paula Chaves, Arzu Ensari

Appendicitis, Etiology, Macroscopy, and Histology of

  • Iva BrcicEmail author
Reference work entry


Typhilitis; Typhlitis


Acute appendicitis is an acute emergency characterized by inflammation of the appendix. It is associated with lumen obstruction and infection. Obstruction is usually due to a fecalith; however, other causes have been described: food fragments, lymphoid hyperplasia (mostly in children), endometriosis, and primary and secondary tumors. Regarding infection, Fusobacteria (F. nucleatum and F. necrophorum) was identified in 62% of patients with acute appendicitis (Swidsinski et al. 2012). Other bacterias (Salmonella, Shigella, C. difficile, Campylobacter), viruses (Adenovirus, CMV, measles, infectious mononucleosis), and parasites (Enterobius vermicularis, Schistosoma, Trichuris, Ascaris, Amoebae, etc.) have been reported. Complications include perforation, peritonitis, periappendiceal abscesses and fibrosis, fistula formation, pylephlebitis with thrombosis of portal venous drainage, and liver abscess formation (Riddell 2014).

Clinical Features

  • Incidence...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Addiss, D. G., Shaffer, N., Flower, B. S., & Tauxe, R. V. (1990). The epidemiology of appendicitis and appendectomy in the United States. American Journal of Epidemiology, 132, 910–925.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Peltokallio, P., & Tykka, H. (1981). Evolution of the age distribution and mortality of acute appendicitis. Archives of Surgery, 116, 153–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Riddell, R. (2014). Appendix. In R. Riddell & D. Jain (Eds.), Lewin, Weinstein, and Riddell’s gastrointestinal pathology and its clinical implications (pp. 806–824). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins/Walter Kluwer.Google Scholar
  4. Søreide, O. (1984). Appendicitis – A study of incidence, death rates and consumption of hospital resources. Postgraduate Medical Journal, 60, 341–345.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Swidsinski, A., Dörffel, Y., Loening-Baucke, V., Tertychnyy, A., Biche-Ool, S., Stonogin, S., Guo, Y., & Sun, N. D. (2012). Mucosal invasion by fusobacteria is a common feature of acute appendicitis in Germany, Russia and China. Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology, 18, 55–58.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of PathologyMedical University of GrazGrazAustria