• John Havens CaryEmail author
  • Howard I. MaibachEmail author
  • Desmond Burrows
  • Jurij J. Hostynek
Living reference work entry


  • Hexavalent chromium (salt) is a form of chromium responsible for sensitization and contact dermatitis in chromate allergy.

  • Exposure to chromium is often occupational and is commonly seen among building workers handling cement, leather workers, electroplaters, welders, and painters.

  • Addition of ferrous sulfate has reduced the incidence of chromate allergy in the Scandinavian countries, since it decreases the concentration of hexavalent chromate in cement.

  • Simple office-based tests are helpful in detecting chromium in objects.

  • Patch testing with chromate (in chromium-sensitive subjects) to detect the minimum elicitation threshold (MET) is best done by using serial dilutions of Cr(III) and Cr(VI).

  • Chromium can cause lipid peroxidation, nephrotoxicity, and affect the immune system.

  • Reduction or elimination of exposure is the best method for prevention of chromium-induced contact allergy.


Chromium allergy Chromate allergy Cr(VI) Cr(III) 


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Louisiana State University School of MedicineNew OrleansUSA
  2. 2.Department of DermatologyUniversity of CaliforniaSan FranciscoUSA

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