Advertisement

Skin Decontamination

  • Austin Jiang
  • Howard Maibach
Living reference work entry

Abstract

The skin is the first line of defense against contaminant exposure.

Removal of contaminated clothing is a first step to contaminant exposure.

Soap and water wash is the most readily available decontamination method but has its limitations.

Many factors influence decontamination including timing of decontamination and chemical nature of contaminant and decontaminant.

Keywords

Wash-in effect Skin decontamination Soap and water decontamination Regional variation of percutaneous penetration 

References

  1. Blomet J, Mathieu L, Fosse C, Burgher F (2014) Water-based solutions are the best decontaminating fluids for dermal corrosive exposures: a mini review. Clinical Toxicology 52:149CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bromberg BE, Song IC, Walden RH (1965) Hydrotherapy of chemical burns. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 35:85–95.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00006534-196501000-00010CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Chan HP, Zhai H, Hui X, Maibach HI (2013) Skin decontamination. Toxicology and Industrial Health 29:955–968.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0748233712448112CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Dancik Y, Bigliardi PL, Bigliardi-Qi M (2015) What happens in the skin? Integrating skin permeation kinetics into studies of developmental and reproductive toxicity following topical exposure. Reproductive Toxicology 58:252–281.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2015.10.001CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Dreher F, Modjtahedi BS, Modjtahedi SP, Maibach HI (2005) Quantification of stratum corneum removal by adhesive tape stripping by total protein assay in 96-well microplates. Skin Research and Technology 11:97–101.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0846.2005.00103.xCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Feldmann RJ, Maibach HI (1974) Occupational exposure to pesticides: 122–127Google Scholar
  7. Haddad LM, Winchester JF (1998) Clinical management of poisoning and drug overdose. Saunders, Philadelphia [u.a]Google Scholar
  8. Hall AH, Maibach HI (2006) Water decontamination of chemical skin/eye splashes: a critical review. Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology 25:67–83.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15569520600695520CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Hui X, Lamel S, Qiao P, Maibach HI (2013) Isolated human and animal stratum corneum as a partial model for the 15 steps of percutaneous absorption: emphasizing decontamination. Journal of Applied Toxicology part II 33:173–182.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jat.2826
  10. Maibach HI, Hall A (2014) Chemical skin injury: mechanisms, prevention, decontamination, treatment. Springer, Berlin/HeidelbergCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Merrick MV, Simpson JD, Liddell S (1982) Skin decontamination – a comparison of four methods. The British Journal of Radiology 55:317–318.  https://doi.org/10.1259/0007-1285-55-652-317CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Moody RP, Maibach HI (2006) Skin decontamination: importance of the wash-in effect. Food and Chemical Toxicology 44:1783–1788.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2006.05.020CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Nielsen J (2010) Efficacy of skin wash on dermal absorption: an in vitro study on four model compounds of varying solubility. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 83:683–690.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00420-010-0546-yCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Wester RC, Hui X, Landry T, Maibach HI (1999) In vivo skin decontamination of methylene bisphenyl isocyanate (MDI): soap and water ineffective compared to polypropylene glycol, polyglycol-based cleanser, and corn oil. Toxicological sciences: an official journal of the Society of Toxicology 48:1–4.  https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.toxsci.a034663

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Cincinnati College of MedicineCincinnatiUSA
  2. 2.University of California – San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA

Personalised recommendations