Advertisement

Forestry Workers

  • Michael Haeberle
Living reference work entry

Abstract

Infectious diseases transmitted by animals to humans represent 25% of all reported and compensated cases of occupational diseases among forestry workers in Germany according to the records of the German Workman’s Compensation Insurance of Agriculture.

Work-related injuries are the most frequent occupational hazards among forestry workers, followed by arthropod bites and arthropod-borne infections.

Forestry workers are at risk of tick-borne diseases such as Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne encephalitis, anaplasmosis, relapsing fever, tularemia, babesiosis, and rickettsiosis. The risk of transmission of Lyme borreliosis after a tick bite is 4%.

High seroprevalences of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in risk groups were found in Europe, up to 61.5% in Northern Poland.

Lepidopterism develops after contact with caterpillars, for example, Thaumetopoea processionea L. in oak forests and Thaumetopoea pityocampa in pine forests, and moths, for example, Douglas-fir tussock moth Orgyia pseudotsugata, due to the toxic protein in the caterpillars’ setae.

Forestry workers may develop hand–arm vibration syndrome symptoms of which are disturbances in the circulation of the fingers (vibration white finger) and peripheral nerves of the hands and arms, dependent upon the frequency with which the chain saw is used. Both exposure to cold in winter and the duration and intensity of woodwork enhance the risk of hand–arm vibration syndrome.

Occupational dermatitis attributed to plant irritants is the most common cause of sick leave among forestry workers in California.

Sap or latex from tropical trees, particularly Anacardiaceae, such as rengas tree (Gluta renghas), can cause an acute vesicular irritant dermatitis and conjunctivitis in woodcutters clearing rain forests.

Phototoxic plants growing at the edge of forests – for example, giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum) containing furocoumarins – may cause phytophotodermatitis among forestry workers. Aromatic lichen acids may also provoke photosensitivity.

Poison ivy (Rhus toxicodendron) – containing urushiol – lichens such as oak moss or tree moss, liverworts in undergrowth, ragweed (Ambrosia), and wood dust from tropical trees, containing, for example, dalbergiones, are the major contact allergens in the forest environment.

Patch testing of plants and plant extracts must be considered carefully in order to avoid active sensitization.

Keywords

Forestry worker Traumatic injuries Occupational dermatitis Insect bite Tick bite Sting Trombidiosis Myiasis Caterpillars Lepidopterism Rhus toxicodendron (Poison ivy) Ragweed (Ambrosia) Giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum) Lichen Epiphytes Frullania (Liverwort) Wood dust (Sawdust) Alantolactone Atranorin Colophony (Rosin) Tree moss Urushiol Usnic acid Sun exposure Hand-arm vibration syndrome Pesticides Fungicides Cold or wet conditions 

References

  1. Aalto-Korte K, Lauerma A, Alanko K (2005) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from lichens in present-day Finland. Contact Dermatitis 52:36–38PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Aberer W (1992) Occupational dermatitis from organically grown parsnip (Pastinaca sativa L.). Contact Dermatitis 26:62PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Aberer E (2009) What should one do in case of a tick bite? In: Lipsker D, Jaulhac B (eds) Lyme borreliosis. Current problems in dermatology, vol 37. Karger, Basel, pp 155–166Google Scholar
  4. Ahola K, Toppinen-Tanner S, Huuhtanen P (2009) Occupational burnout and chronic work disability: an eight-year cohort study on pensioning among Finnish forest industry workers. J Affect Disord 115:150–159PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Alamgir H, Tompa E, Koehoorn M (2007) Costs and compensation of work-related injuries in British Columbia sawmills. Occup Environ Med 64:196–201PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Arslan Lied G (2017) Red meat allergy induced by tick bites: a Norwegian case report. Eur Ann Allergy Clin Immunol 49:186–188PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Artola-Bordás F, Arnedo-Pena A, Romeu-García MA, Bellido-Blasco JB (2008) Outbreak of dermatitis caused by pine processionary caterpillar (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) in schoolchildren. An Sist Sanit Navar 31:289–293PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Asakawa Y, Benezra C, Ducombs G et al (1974) Cross sensitization between Frullania and Laurus nobilis: the allergen of laurel. Arch Dermatol 110(6):957PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Asakawa Y, Matsuda R, Toyota M et al (1983) Sesquiterpenoids from Chiloscyphus, Clasmatocolea and Frullania species. Phytochemistry 22:961–964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Asbrink E, Hovmark A (1988) Early and late cutaneous manifestations in Ixodes-borne borreliosis (erythema migrans borreliosis. Lyme borreliosis). Ann N Y Acad Sci 539:4–15PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Baefverstedt B (1944) Über Lymphadenosis benigna cutis. Eine klinische pathologisch-anatomische Studie. Acta Dermato Venereol Suppl (Stockh) 11:1–102Google Scholar
  12. Barbier P, Benezra C (1982) Stereospecificity of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) included by two natural enantiomers, (+)- and (−)-frullanolides, in guinea pigs. Naturwissenschaften 69:296–297PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Beaudouin E, Kanny G, Guerin B et al (1997) Unusual manifestations of hypersensitivity after a tick bite: report of two cases. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 79:43–46PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Bédry R, Gromb S (2009) Intoxications specific to the Aquitaine region. Rev Med Interne 30:640–645PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Benezra C, Stampf JL, Barbier P, Ducombs G (1985) Enantiospecificity in allergic contact dermatitis. A review and new results in Frullania-sensitive patients. Contact Dermatitis 13:110–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bennet L, Halling A, Berglund J (2006) Increased incidence of Lyme borreliosis in southern Sweden following mild winters and during warm, humid summers. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 25:426–432PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Berger BW, Johnson RC, Kodner C, Coleman L (1995) Cultivation of Borrelia burgdorferi from human tick bite sites: a guide to the risk of infection. J Am Acad Dermatol 32:184–187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bouattour A, Ghorbel A, Chabchoub A, Postic D (2004) Lyme borreliosis situation in North Africa. Article in French. Arch Inst Pasteur Tunis 81(1–4):13–20PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Bovenzi M (2008) A follow up study of vascular disorders in vibration-exposed forestry workers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 81:401–408PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Bovenzi M (2010) A longitudinal study of vibration white finger, cold response of digital arteries, and measures of daily vibration exposure. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 83:259–272PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Bruley C, Beltzer-Garelly E, Kaufman P et al (1986) Allergy and photoallergy to frullania. Photo-Dermatology 1:49–50Google Scholar
  22. Buczek A, Rudek A, Bartosik K et al (2009) Seroepidemiological study of Lyme borreliosis among forestry workers in southern Poland. Ann Agric Environ Med 16:257–261PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Bundesministerium für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Verbraucherschutz (2011) Die zweite Bundeswaldinventur – Das Wichtigste in Kürze. http://bundeswaldinventur.de/enid/b38c0a25a78ab618f9cc6feea5e1ba1d,0/31.html. Accessed 27 Feb 2011
  24. Burgdorfer W, Barbour AG, Hayes SF et al (1982) Lyme disease – a tick-borne spirochetosis? Science 216:1317–1319PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Burri C, Bastic V, Maeder G et al (2011) Microclimate and the zoonotic cycle of tick-borne encephalitis virus in Switzerland. J Med Entomol 48(3):615–627PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Cetin E, Sotoudeh M, Auer H, Stanek G (2006) Paradigm Burgenland: risk of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection indicated by variable seroprevalence rates in hunters. Wien Klin Wochenschr 118:677–681PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Champion RH (1965) Wood-cutter’s disease: contact sensitivity to lichen. Br J Dermatol 77:285PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Chandrasekaran M, Mensah R (2008) Caterpillar dermatitis. Indian Pediatr 45:307PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Ciceroni and Ciarrocchi (1998) Lyme disease in Italy, 1983–1996. New Microbiol 21:407–418PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Cinco M, Luzzati R, Mascioli M, Floris R, Brouqui P (2006) Serological evidence of Rickettsia infections in forestry rangers in North-Eastern Italy. Clin Microbiol Infect 12:493–495PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Cisak E, Sroka J, Zwoliński J, Umiński J (1998) Seroepidemiologic study on tick-borne encephalitis among forestry workers and farmers from the Lublin region (eastern Poland). Ann Agric Environ Med 5:177–181PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Cisak E, Sroka J, Zwolińjski J, Chmielewska-Badora J (1999) Risk of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus infection among people occupationally exposed to tick bites. Wiad Parazytol 45:375–380PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Cisak E, Chmielewska-Badora J, Zwoliński J et al (2005) Risk of tick-borne bacterial diseases among workers of Roztocze National Park (South-Eastern Poland). Ann Agric Environ Med 12:127–132PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Conolly JD, Thornton IMS (1973) Sesquiterpenoid lactones from the liverwort Frullania tamarisci. Phytochemistry 12:631–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Copertaro A, Pucci S, Bracci M, Barbaresi M (2006) Hymenoptera stings in forestry department agents: evaluation of risk. Med Lav 97:676–681PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Corazza M, Borghi A, Zampino MR et al (2005) Allergic contact dermatitis due to an insect repellent: double sensitization to picaridin and methyl glucose dioleate. Acta Derm Venereol 85:264PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Cormier Y, Mérlaux A, Duchaine C (2000) Respiratory health impact of working in sawmills in eastern Canada. Arch Environ Health 55:424–430PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Couch P, Johnson CE (1992) Prevention of Lyme disease. Am J Hosp Pharm 49:1164–1173PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Covert DJ, Langley RL (2002) Infectious disease occurrence in forestry workers: a systematic review. J Agromedicine 8:95–111PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Culberson CF (1969) Chemical and botanical guide to lichen products. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel HillGoogle Scholar
  41. Dahlquist I, Fregert S (1980) Contact allergy to atranorin in lichens and perfumes. Contact Dermatitis 6:111–119PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Dahlquist I, Fregert S (1981) Atranorin and oak moss contact allergy. Contact Dermatitis 7:168–169PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Daltroy LH, Phillips C, Lew R et al (2007) A controlled trial of a novel primary prevention program for Lyme disease and other tick-borne illnesses. Health Educ Behav 34:531–542PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. de Arruda JAA, de Oliveira Silva LV, Silva PUJ et al (2017) Head and neck myiasis: a case series and review of the literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 124(5):e249–e256. pii: S2212-4403(17)30978-1PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. de Cock PA, Vorwerk H, Bruynzeel DP (1998) Hand dermatitis caused by ferns. Contact Dermatitis 39:324PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Derraik JG (2007) Three students exposed to Uraba lugens (gum leaf skeletoniser) caterpillars in a West Auckland school. N Z Med J 120:U2142Google Scholar
  47. Derraik JG, Rademaker M (2007) Phytophotodermatitis caused by contact with a fig tree (Ficus carica). N Z Med J 120(1261):U2720PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Des Vignes F, Piesman J, Heffernan R et al (2001) Effect of tick removal on transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi and Ehrlichia phagocytophila by Ixodes scapularis nymphs. J Infect Dis 183:773–778PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Di Renzi S, Martini A, Binazzi A et al (2010) Risk of acquiring tick-borne infections in forestry workers from Lazio, Italy. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 29:1579–1581PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. Diaz JH (2005) The epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of caterpillar envenoming in the southern US. J La State Med Soc 157:153–157PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Diepgen TL, Drexler H, Elsner P, Schmitt J (2015) UV-irradiation-induced skin cancer as a new occupational disease. Hautarzt 66:154–159PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Dimich-Ward H, Hertzman C, Teschke K et al (1996) Reproductive effects of paternal exposure to chlorophenate wood preservatives in the sawmill industry. Scand J Work Environ Health 22:267–273PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. Dobracki W, Dobracka B, Paczosa W et al (2007) Epidemiology of borreliosis in workers of the district forestry offices in lower Silesia. Article in Polish. Przegl Epidemiol 61:385–391PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. Ducombs G, Lepoittevin JP, Berl V et al (2003) Routine patch testing with frullanolide mix: an European Environmental and Contact Dermatitis Research Group multicentre study. Contact Dermatitis 48:158–161PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. Dusthiewicz J (1995) Arachnids as risk factors in occupational exposure. Wiad Parazytol 41:253–266Google Scholar
  56. Dybowska D, Kozielewicz D, Abdulgater A et al (2007) Prevalence of borreliosis among forestry workers in Kujawsko-Pomorskie voivodeship. Article in Polish. Przegl Epidemiol 61:67–71PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. Elfman L, Hogstedt C, Engvall K et al (2009) Acute health effects on planters of conifer seedlings treated with insecticides. Ann Occup Hyg 53:383–390PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Elsner P, Diepgen TL, Schliemann S (2014) Lentigo maligna and lentigo maligna melanoma as occupational skin diseases in a forestry worker with long-standing occupational UV-exposure. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 12:915–917PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Enderle GJ (2010) Personal communication. SAMA, Oberer Eselsberg 45, D-89081 Ulm. E-Mail: enderle@samanet.deGoogle Scholar
  60. Epstein WL (1994) Occupational poison ivy and oak dermatitis. Dermatol Clin 12:511–516PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Ernst RA (2003) Outdoor hazards: they’re out to get you! Occup Health Saf 72:82–85PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. Fenga C, Rapisarda V, Valentino M (2007) Hand-arm vibration syndrome and upper limbs diseases in the forest workers of Italia meridionale. G Ital Med Lav Ergon 29:592–593PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. Fernández de Corres L (1986) Photosensitivity to oak moss. Contact Dermatitis 15:118PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. Fernández de Corrés L, Leanizbarrutia I, Muñoz D (1987) Multiple sensitizations to plants in a farmer. Contact Dermatitis 17:315–317PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. Finkelstein Y, Raikhlin-Eisenkraft B, Taitelman U (1988) Systemic manifestations of erucism: a case report. Vet Hum Toxicol 30(6):537–574Google Scholar
  66. Fischer J, Lupberger E, Hebsaker J (2017) Prevalence of type I sensitization to alpha-gal in forest service employees and hunters. Allergy 72:1540–1547PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Fisher AA (1977) Some plant chemicals that produce allergic reactions. Cutis 20:441–444PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Fisher AA (1982) Contact urticaria due to medicaments, chemicals and foods. Cutis 30:168PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations – FAO (2005) Global forest resources assessment 2005. http://www.fao.org/forestry/foris/data/fra2005/kf/common/GlobalForestA4-ENsmall.pdf. Accessed 16 Aug 2010
  70. Foussereau J, Bergoend M, Grosshans MJ (1967) La sensibilisation à la frullania existe aussi en Alsace. a propos d’une observation d’eczéma des bûcherons. Bull Soc Fr Derm Syph 74:140–141Google Scholar
  71. Foussereau J, Muller JC, Benezra C (1975) Contact allergy to Frullania and Laurus Nobilis: cross-sensitization and chemical structure of the allergens. Contact Dermatitis 1:223–230PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Fregert S, Dahlquist I (1983) Patch testing with oak moss extract. Contact Dermatitis 9:227PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. Frimmel S, Krienke A, Riebold D et al (2010) Tick-borne encephalitis virus in humans and ticks in Northeastern Germany. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 135:1393–1396PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Fuentes V, Zapatero L, Martínez M et al (2006) Allergy to pine processionary caterpillar (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) in children. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 34:59–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Gammons M, Salam G (2002) Tick removal. Am Fam Physician 66:643–645PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. Gatto P, Zocca A, Battisti A (2009) Economic assessment of managing processionary moth in pine forests: a case study in Portugal. J Environ Manag 90:683–691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Giannandrea F, Brandi G, Bemardini P (2005) Hymenoptera sting arthropathy as an occupational injury: a case report. G Ital Med Lav Ergon 27:250–252PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. Gonçalo S (1987) Contact sensitivity to lichens and compositae in Frullania dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis 16:84–86PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. Gottschling S, Meyer S (2006) An epidemic airborne disease caused by the oak processionary caterpillar. Pediatr Dermatol 23:64–66PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. Grygorczuk S, Panecewicz S, Zajkowska J (2008) Detection of anti-hantavirus antibodies in forest workers in the north-east of Poland. Przegl Epidemiol 62:531–537PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. Guy N (2007) Lyme disease: basis for treatment strategy, primary preventive care and secondary preventive care. Med Mal Infect 37:381–393PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. Hahn M, Lischka G, Pfeifle J, Wirth V (1995) A case of contact dermatitis from lichens in southern Germany. Contact Dermatitis 32:55–56PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. Hausen BM (1986) Contact allergy to woods. Clin Dermatol 4:65–76PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. Hausen BM, Osmundsen PE (1983) Contact allergy to parthenolide in Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schulz-Bip. (feverfew, Asteraceae) and cross-reactions to related sesquiterpene lactone containing Compositae species. Acta Derm Venereol 63:308–314PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. Hausen BM, Emde L, Marks V (1993) An investigation of the allergenic constituents of Cladonia stellaris (Opiz) Pous & Vezda (‘silver moss’, ‘reindeer moss’ or ‘reindeer lichen’). Contact Dermatitis 28:70–76PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. Heacock H, Hertzman C, Demers PA et al (2000) Childhood cancer in the offspring of male sawmill workers occupationally exposed to chlorophenate fungicides. Environ Health Perspect 108:499–503PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Heininger U, Zimmermann T, Schoerner C et al (1993) Tick bite and Lyme borreliosis. An epidemiologic study in the Erlangen area. Monatsschr Kinderheilkd 141:874–877PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. Hellgren L (1976) Lichen ruber planus in occupational groups in total populations. Berufsdermatosen 24:71–78PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. Herxheimer K, Hartmann K (1902) Über Acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. Article in German. Arch Dermatol Syph 61(57–76):255–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Hesler IS, Logan TM, Benenson MW, Moser C (1999) Acute dermatitis from oak processionary caterpillar in a U.S. community in Germany. Mil Med 8:164Google Scholar
  91. Hjorth N, Roed-Petersen J, Thomsen K (1976) Airborne contact dermatitis from compositae oleoresins simulating photodermatitis. Br J Dermatol 95:613PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. Hofmann H (2009) Lyme borreliosis and other nonvenereal spirochetal infections. In: Burgdorf WHC, Plewig G, Wolff HH, Landthaler M (eds) Braun-Falco’s dermatology, 3rd edn. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 166–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Holec-Gasior L, Stanczak J, Myjak P, Kur J (2008) Occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii specific antibodies in group of forestry workers from Pomorskie and Warminsko-Mazurskie provinces. Wiad Parazytol 54:231–236PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Hossler EW (2010a) Caterpillars and moths: part I. Dermatologic manifestations of encounters with Lepidoptera. J Am Acad Dermatol 62:1–10PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. Hossler EW (2010b) Caterpillars and moths: part II. Dermatologic manifestations of encounters with Lepidoptera. J Am Acad Dermatol 62:13–28PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. Ikushima M, Yamada F, Kawahashi S et al (1999) Antibody response to OspC-I synthetic peptide derived from outer surface protein C of Borrelia burgdorferi in sera from Japanese forestry workers. Epidemiol Infect 122:429–433PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Inal A, Altintaş DU, Güvenmez HK et al (2006) Life-threatening facial edema due to pine caterpillar mimicking an allergic event. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 34:171–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Irby CE, Yentzer BA, Vallejos QM et al (2009) The prevalence and possible causes of contact dermatitis in farmworkers. Int J Dermatol 48:1166–1170PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Iserhard CA, Kaminski LA, Marchiori MO et al (2007) Occurrence of Lepidopterism caused by the moth Hylesia nigricans (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Neotrop Entomol 36(4):612–615PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. Jans HW, Franssen AE (2008) The urticating hairs of the oak processionary caterpillar (Thaumetopoea processionea L.), a possible problem for animals? Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 133:424–429PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. Johansen JD, Bernard G, Giménez-Arnau E et al (2006) Comparison of elicitation potential of chloroatranol and atranol – 2 allergens in oak moss absolute. Contact Dermatitis 54(4):192–195PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. Jones T, Kumar S (2010) Comparison of ergonomic risk assessment output in four sawmill jobs. Int J Occup Saf Ergon 16:105–111PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. Joss AWL, Mavin S, Ho-Yen DO (2007) Increased incidence of Lyme borreliosis following mild winters and during warm, humid summers. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 26:79PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  104. Jovanovic D, Atanasievska S, Protic-Djokic V (2015) Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in occupationally exposed persons in the Belgrade area, Serbia. Braz J Microbiol 46:807–814PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Kahl O, Janetzki-Mittmann C, Gray JS et al (1998) Risk of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato for a host in relation to the duration of nymphal Ixodes ricinus feeding and the method of tick removal. Zentralbl Bakteriol 287:41–52PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  106. Katzenellenbogen I (1955) Caterpillar dermatitis as an occupational disease. Dermatologica 111:99–106PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. Kaya AD, Parlak AH, Ozturk CE, Behcet M (2008) Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi infection among forestry workers and farmers in Duzce, north-western Turkey. New Microbiol 31:203–209PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. Kern P, Ammon A, Kron M et al (2004) Risk factors for alveolar echinococcosis in humans. www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol10no12/03-0773.htm. Accessed 27 Feb 2011
  109. Kimmins JP (1997) Balancing act: environmental issues in forestry, 2nd edn. University of British Columbia Press, VancouverGoogle Scholar
  110. Knoche H, Ourisson G, Perold GW et al (1969) Allergenic component of a liverwort: a sesquiterpene lactone. Science 166:239–240PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. Knuschke P, Unverricht I, Ott G, Janssen M (2007) Personenbezogene Messung der UV-Exposition von Arbeitnehmern im Freien. Abschlussbericht des Projektes F1777 der Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und ArbeitsmedizinGoogle Scholar
  112. Kocbach PP, Kocbach BP (2014) Prevalence of Lyme disease among forestry workers. Med Pr 65:335–341PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  113. Kokan (2010) Carpenters and woodworkers. In: Greenberg MI et al (eds) Occupational, industrial, and environmental toxicology, 3rd edn. Mosby, St. Louis, pp 46–57Google Scholar
  114. Kolmodin-Hedman B, Akerblom M, Flato S, Alex G (1995) Symptoms in forestry workers handling conifer plants treated with permethrin. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 55:487–493PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  115. Kraenke B (2011) Trugbild “Ekzem” und nicht-ekzematöse Kontaktreaktion. Abstract Nr. S15/02. Abstract CD 46. DDG Tagung 1.4.2011Google Scholar
  116. Krueger DH, Hofmann J, Ulrich R, Stark K (2010) Hantavirusinfektionen – Massiver Anstieg an Erkrankungen in Deutschland. Dt Aerztebl 107:A1517–A1518Google Scholar
  117. Kunz C (2003) TBE vaccination and the Austrian experience. Vaccine 1:50–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Lamberg S, Mulrennan JA (1969) Bullous eruption to diethyl toluamide (DEET) resembling a blistering insect eruption. Arch Dermatol 100:582PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  119. Lamy M (1990) Contact dermatitis (erucism) produced by processionary caterpillars (genus thaumetopoea). J Appl Entomol 110:425–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Le Coulant P, Lopes G (1960) Rôle pathogène des muscinées-hépatiques dans les industries du bois. Arch mal Prof Méd Trav 21:374–376Google Scholar
  121. Le Coulant P, Texier L, Maleville J et al (1966) L’allergie au Frullania son rôle dans la “dermite du bois de chêne”. Bull Soc FR Derm Syph 73:440–443PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  122. Lewandowska A, Kruba Z, Filip R (2013) Epidemiology of Lyme disease among workers of forest inspectorates in Poland. Ann Agric Environ Med 20:329–331PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  123. Lorenzi S, Guerra L, Vezzani C, Vincenzi C (1995) Airborne contact dermatitis from atranorin. Contact Dermatitis 32:315–316PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  124. Lovell CR, Rowan M (1991) Dandelion dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis 25:185–188PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  125. Maetzel D, Maier WA, Kampen H (2005) Borrelia burgdorferi infection prevalences in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in urban and suburban Bonn, western Germany. Parasitol Res 95:5–12PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  126. Maier H, Spiegel W, Kinaciyan T (2003) The oak processionary caterpillar as the cause of an epidemic airborne disease: survey and analysis. Br J Dermatol 149:990–997PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  127. Maraspin V, Cimperman J, Lotric-Furlan S et al (2002) Solitary borrelial lymphocytoma in adult patients. Wien Klin Wochenschr 114:515–523PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  128. Márquez FJ, Rojas A, Ibarra V et al (2006) Prevalence data of Rickettsia slovaca and other SFG Rickettsiae species in Dermacentor marginatus in the southeastern Iberian peninsula. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1078:328–330PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  129. McCabe GJ, Bunnell JE (2004) Precipitation and the occurrence of Lyme disease in the northeastern United States. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 4:143–148PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  130. McCall BP, Horwitz IB, Feldman SR, Balkrishnan R (2005) Incidence rates, costs, severity, and work-related factors of occupational dermatitis: a workers’ compensation analysis of Oregon, 1990–1997. Arch Dermatol 141:713–718PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  131. McCool JP, Reeder AI, Robinson EM, Petrie KJ, Gorman DF (2009) Outdoor workers’ perceptions of the risks of excess sun-exposure. J Occup Health 51:404–411PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  132. Meiners T, Hammer B, Göbel UB, Kahl O (2006) Determining the tick scutal index allows assessment of tick feeding duration and estimation of infection risk with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in a person bitten by an Ixodes ricinus nymph. Int J Med Microbiol 40:103–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Meister F, Krieg M (2011) Innovative blood-sucking insects blocking fibres for protective clothes application. Presented at the Techtextil- and Avantex Symposia 2011, Frankfurt/M., 24–26 May 2011, p 10Google Scholar
  134. Mell K (2010) Personal communication. Spitzenverband der landwirtschaftlichen Sozialversicherung, Weissensteinstr. 70–72, D-34131 Kassel. E-Mail: klaus.mell@spv.lsv.deGoogle Scholar
  135. Mitchell JC (1965) Allergy to lichens. Allergic contact dermatitis from usnic acid produced by lichenized fungi. Arch Dermatol 92:142–146PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  136. Mitchell JC (1970) Patch test results – screening set and plants. Contact Dermatitis Newsl 8:177–179Google Scholar
  137. Mitchell JC (1981) Industrial aspects of 112 cases of allergic contact dermatitis from Frullania in British Columbia during a 10-year period. Contact Dermatitis 7:268–269PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  138. Mitchell JC (1986) Frullania (liverwort) phytodermatitis (woodcutter’s eczema). Clin Dermatol 4:62–64PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  139. Mitchell JC, Chan-Yeung M (1974) Contact allergy from Frullania and respiratory allergy from Thuja. Can Med Assoc J 110(653–654):657Google Scholar
  140. Mitchell JC, Shibata S (1969) Immunologic activity of some substances derived from lichenized fungi. J Invest Dermatol 52:517–520PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  141. Mitchell JC, Fritig B, Singh B, Towers GH (1970) Allergic contact dermatitis from Frullania and compositae. The role of sesquiterpene lactones. J Invest Dermatol 54:233–239PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  142. Mitchell JC, Roy AK, Dupuis G, Towers GH (1971) Allergic contact dermatitis from ragweeds (Ambrosia species). The role of sesquiterpene lactones. Arch Dermatol 104:73–76PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  143. Moehrle M, Rassner G (2002) How to remove ticks? Dermatology 204:303–304PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  144. Moll van Charante AW, Groen J, Mulder PGH et al (1998) Occupational risks of zoonotic infections in Dutch forestry workers and muskrat catchers. Eur J Epidemiol 14:109–116PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  145. Mota AV, Barros MA, Mesquita-Guimarães J (1997) Contact dermatitis from moss in a forestry worker. Contact Dermatitis 37(5):240–241PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  146. Mullegger RR (2004) Dermatological manifestations of Lyme borreliosis. Eur J Dermatol 14:296–309PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  147. Nadal D, Wunderli W, Briner H, Hansen K (1989) Prevalence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in forestry workers and blood donors from the same region in Switzerland. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 8:992–995PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  148. Nahimana I, Gern L, Blanc DS et al (2004) Risk of Borrelia burgdorferi infection in western Switzerland following a tick bite. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 23:603–608PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  149. Nardelli A, Giménez-Arnau E, Bernard G et al (2009) Is a low content in atranol/chloroatranol safe in oak moss-sensitized individuals? Contact Dermatitis 60:91–95PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  150. Niścigorska J, Skotarczak B, Wodecka B (2003) Borrelia burgdorferi infection among forestry workers – assessed with an immunoenzymatic method (ELISA), PCR and correlated with the clinical state of the patients. Ann Agric Environ Med 10:15–19PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  151. O’Malley MA, Mathias CG (1988) Distribution of lost-work-time claims for skin disease in California agriculture: 1978–1983. Am J Ind Med 14:715–720PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  152. Oehme R, Hartelt K, Backe H (2002) Foci of tick-borne diseases in Southwest Germany. Int J Med Microbiol 291(Suppl 33):22–29PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  153. Offenberg K (2000) The calamity of the oak precession moth (Thaumetopoea processionea) during the last century. Forst Holz 55:424–426Google Scholar
  154. Oliwiecki S, Beck MH, Hausen BM (1992) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from caffeates in poplar bud resin in a tree surgeon. Contact Dermatitis 27:127–128PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  155. Oltman J, Hensler R (1986) Poison oak/ivy and forestry workers. Clin Dermatol 4:213–216PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  156. Patey O (2007) Lyme disease: prophylaxis after tick bite. Med Mal Infect 37:446–455PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  157. Pecegueiro M, Menezes Brandão F (1985) Airborne contact dermatitis to plants. Contact Dermatitis 13:277–279PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  158. Pichon B, Kahl O, Hammer B, Gray JS (2006) Pathogens and host DNA in Ixodes ricinus nymphal ticks from a German forest. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 6:382–387PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  159. Powell KE, Taylor A, Phillips BJ et al (1978) Cutaneous sporotrichosis in forestry workers. Epidemic due to contaminated Sphagnum moss. JAMA 240:232–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Press E, Googins JA, Poareo H, Jones K (1977) Health hazards to timber and forestry workers from the Douglas fir tussock moth. Arch Environ Health 32:206–210PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  161. Quirce S, Tabar AI, Muro MD, Olaguibel JM (1994) Airborne contact dermatitis from Frullania. Contact Dermatitis 30:73–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Quirino AP, Barros MA (1995) Occupational contact dermatitis from lichens and Frullania. Contact Dermatitis 33:68–69PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  163. Radespiel-Tröger M, Meyer M, Pfahlberg A et al (2009) Outdoor work and skin cancer incidence: a registry-based study in Bavaria. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 82:357–363PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  164. Rath PM, Ibershoff B, Mohnhaupt A et al (1996) Seroprevalence of Lyme borreliosis in forestry workers from Brandenburg, Germany. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 15:372–377PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  165. Redd JT, Voorhees RE, Török TJ (2007) Outbreak of lepidopterism at a Boy Scout camp. J Am Acad Dermatol 56:952–955PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  166. Richards S, G Balanay JA, W Harris J (2015) Effectiveness of permethrin-treated clothing to prevent tick exposure in foresters in the central Appalachian region of the USA. Int J Environ Health Res 25:453–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Ridley HN (1911) Rengas-poisoning. Malayan Med J 9:7Google Scholar
  168. Ridley HN (1922) Plant dermatitis. J Trop Med Hyg 25:225Google Scholar
  169. Rietschel R, Fowler JF (2008) Fisher’s contact dermatitis, 6th edn. BC Decker, Hamilton, pp 432–501Google Scholar
  170. Rigaud E, Jaulhac B, Garcia-Bonnet N (2016) Seroprevalence of seven pathogens transmitted by the Ixodes ricinus tick in forestry workers in France. Clin Microbiol Infect 8:735. Epub 2016 May 26.Google Scholar
  171. Robertson WD, Mitchell JC (1967) Allergic contact and photodermatitis. Can Med Assoc J 97:380–386PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  172. Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Arria M, Rojas-Mirabal J, Borges E (2005) Lepidopterism due to exposure to the moth Hylesia metabus in northeastern Venezuela. Am J Trop Med Hyg 73(5):991–993PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Rojko T, Ruzić-Sabljić E, Strle F, Lotric-Furlan S (2005) Prevalence and incidence of Lyme borreliosis among slovene forestry workers during the period of tick activity. Wien Klin Wochenschr 117:219–225PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  174. Rojko T, Ursic T, Avsic-Zupanc T (2006) Seroprevalence of human anaplasmosis in slovene forestry workers. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1078:92–94PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  175. Rossbach B, Kegel P, Süß H, Letzel S (2016) Biomonitoring and evaluation of permethrin uptake in forestry workers using permethrin-treated tick-proof pants. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 26:95–103PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  176. Rossi G, Steffens W (2004) Allergic contact dermatitis from Autan® spray: methyl glucose dioleate as sensitizing ingredient. Contact Dermatitis 50:324PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  177. Rufli T (2009) Diseases caused by arthropods. In: Burgdorfer WHC, Plewig G, Wolff HH, Landthaler M (eds) Braun-Falco’s dermatology, 3rd edn. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 323–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Sahin I, Kaya D, Parlak AH (2005) Dermatophytoses in forestry workers and farmers. Mycoses 48:260–264PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  179. Salisbury DA, Brubeker R, Hertzman C et al (1991) Fatalities among British Columbia fallers and buckers 1981–7. Can J Public Health 82:32–37PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  180. Salo H, Hannuksela M, Hausen B (1981) Lichen picker’s dermatitis (Cladonia alpestris (L.) Rab.). Contact Dermatitis 7:9–13PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  181. Sandberg M, Thune P (1984) The sensitizing capacity of atranorin. Contact Dermatitis 11:68–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Santino I, Sessa R, Pantanella F et al (2009) Detection of different Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies in serum of people with different occupational risks: short report. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 22:537–541PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  183. Santos-Magadán S, González de Olano D, Bartolomé-Zavala B et al (2009) Adverse reactions to the processionary caterpillar: irritant or allergic mechanism? Contact Dermatitis 60:109–110PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  184. Sasseville D (2009) Clinical patterns of phytodermatitis. Dermatol Clin 27:299–308PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  185. Schallock PC (2009) Lichen extracts. Dermatitis 20:53–54Google Scholar
  186. Schmitt J, Diepgen T, Bauer A (2009) Occupational exposure to non-artificial UV-light and non-melanocytic skin cancer – a systematic review concerning a new occupational disease. JDDG 7:1–14Google Scholar
  187. Schreiber HA, Renkl AC, Lapinski W et al (2010) Myiasis after study trip to French Guiana. JDDG 8:357–360PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  188. Schwartz L, Tulipan L, Birmingham DJ (1957) Occupational diseases of the skin. Henry Kimpton, LondonGoogle Scholar
  189. Scott MJ, Heumann MA, DeBruyckere DM et al (2002) The feasibility of using skin protectant products and education to prevent poison oak. Wilderness Environ Med 13:206–208PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  190. Shapiro ED (2001) Doxycycline for tick-bites – not for everyone. N Engl J Med 345:133–134PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  191. Shimizu T, Hori T, Tokuyama K et al (1995) Clinical and immunologic surveys of Hymenoptera hypersensitivity in Japanese forestry workers. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 74:495–500PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  192. Shkalim V, Herscovici Z, Amir J, Levy Y (2008) Systemic allergic reaction to tree processionary caterpillar in children. Pediatr Emerg Care 24:233–235PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  193. Siregar RS (1975) Occupational dermatoses among foresters. Contact Dermatitis 1:33–37PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  194. Sood SK, Salzman MB, Johnson BJB et al (1997) Duration of tick attachment as a predictor of the risk of Lyme disease in an area in which Lyme disease in an area in which Lyme disease is endemic. J Infect Dis 175:996–999PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  195. Stallones L (2006) Suicide and potential occupational exposure to pesticides, Colorado 1990–1999. J Agromedicine 11:107–112PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  196. Stańczak J, Grzeszczuk A (2006) Seroprevalence of anaplasma phagocytophilum among forestry rangers in northern and northeastern Poland. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1078:89–91PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  197. Stanek G, Kahl O (1999) Chemoprophylaxis for Lyme borreliosis? Zentralbl Bakteriol 289:655–665PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  198. Stanek G, Strle F (2009) Lyme borreliosis: a European perspective on diagnosis and clinical management. Curr Opin Infect Dis 22(5):450–454PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  199. Stanek G, O’Connell S, Cimmino M et al (1996) European Union concerted action on risk assessment in Lyme borreliosis: clinical case definitions for Lyme borreliosis. Wien Klin Wochenschr 108:741–747PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  200. Stanek G, Fingerle V, Hunfeld KP et al (2011) Lyme borreliosis: clinical case definitions for diagnosis and management in Europe. Clin Microbiol Infect 17:69–79PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  201. Staub D, Debrunner M, Amsler L, Steffen R (2002) Effectiveness of a repellent containing DEET and EBAAP for preventing tick bites. Wilderness Environ Med 13:12–20PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  202. Stawicki T (2017) Studies on Lyme disease incidence rates in selected groups of forestry workers in West Pomerania. Med Pr 68:211–220PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  203. Steere AC, Malawista SE, Snydman DR et al (1977) Lyme arthritis: an epidemic of oligoarticular arthritis in children and adults in three Connecticut communities. Arthritis Rheum 20:7–17PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  204. Stefaniak J (2007) Guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of liver alveococcosis caused by Echinococcus multilocularis. Wiad Parazytol 53:189–194PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  205. Subak S (2003) Effects of climate on variability in Lyme disease incidence in the northeastern United States. Am J Epidemiol 157:531–538PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  206. Sutinen P, Toppila E, Starck J et al (2006) Hand-arm vibration syndrome with use of anti-vibration chain saws: 19-year follow-up study of forestry workers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 79:665–671PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  207. Takeuchi T, Takeya M, Imanishi H (1986) Pathological changes observed in the finger biopsy of patients with vibration-induced white finger. Scand J Work Environ Health 12:280–283PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  208. Tan KS, Mitchell JC (1968) Patch and photopatch tests in contact dermatitis and photodermatitis: a preliminary report of investigation of 150 patients, with special reference to “cedar-poisoning”. Can Med Assoc J 98:252–255PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  209. Thieden E, Philipsen PA, Heydenreich J, Wulf HC (2004) UV radiation exposure related to age, sex, occupation, and sun behavior based on time-stamped personal dosimeter readings. Arch Dermatol 140:197–203PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  210. Thorin C, Rigaud E, Capek I et al (2008) Seroprevalence of Lyme Borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis in workers at risk, in eastern France. Med Mal Infect 38:533–542PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  211. Thune P (1977) Contact allergy due to lichens in patients with a history of photosensitivity. Contact Dermatitis 3:267–272PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  212. Thune P, Eeg-Larsen T (1984) Contact and photocontact allergy in persistent light reactivity. Contact Dermatitis 11:98–107PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  213. Thune P, Solberg YJ (1980) Photosensitivity and allergy to aromatic lichen acids, compositae oleoresins and other plant substances. Contact Dermatitis 6:81–87PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  214. Thune P, Solberg Y, McFadden N et al (1982) Perfume allergy due to oak moss and other lichens. Contact Dermatitis 8:396–400PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  215. Tietz H-J (2010) Personal communication. Institut für Pilzkrankheiten, Luisenstr. 50, D-10117 Berlin. E-Mail: tietz@institut-fuer-pilzkrankheiten.deGoogle Scholar
  216. Tokarska-Rodak M, Plewik D, Kozioł-Montewka M et al (2014) Risk of occupational infections caused by Borrelia burgdorferi among forestry workers and farmers. Med Pr 65:109–117PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  217. Tomao P, Ciceroni L, D’Ovidio MC (2005) Prevalence and incidence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi and to tick-borne encephalitis virus in agricultural and forestry workers from Tuscany, Italy. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 24:457–463PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  218. Tomb RR (1992) Patch testing with frullania during a 10-year period: hazards and complications. Contact Dermatitis 26:220–223PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  219. Utikal J, Booken N, Peitsch WK et al (2009) Lepidopterismus. Ein zunehmendes Hautproblem in klimatisch wärmeren Regionen Deutschlands. Hautarzt 60:48–50PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  220. Vázquez M, Muehlenbein C, Cartter M et al (2008) Effectiveness of personal protective measures to prevent Lyme disease. Emerg Infect Dis 14:210–216PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Vega JM, Moneo I, Armentia A (1997) Anaphylaxis to a pine caterpillar. Allergy 52(12):1244–1245PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  222. Vega J, Vega JM, Moneo I et al (2004) Occupational immunologic contact urticaria from pine processionary caterpillar (Thaumetopoea pityocampa): experience in 30 cases. Contact Dermatitis 50:60–64PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  223. Vega JM, Moneo I, Ortiz JC (2011) Prevalence of cutaneous reactions to the pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) in an adult population. Contact Dermatitis 64(4):220–228PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  224. Verma DK, Demers C, Shaw D et al (2010) Occupational health and safety issues in Ontario sawmills and veneer/plywood plants: a pilot study. J Environ Public Health 2010:526487. Epub 3 Jan 2011PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  225. Watt JM, Breyer-Brandwijk MG (1962) The medical and poisonous plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. E & S Livingstone Ltd, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  226. Weber K, Wilske B (2006) Mini erythema migrans – a sign of early Lyme borreliosis. Dermatology 212:113–116PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  227. Weisshaar E, Schaefer A, Scheidt RR et al (2006) Epidemiology of tick bites and borreliosis in children attending kindergarten or so-called “forest kindergarten” in Southwest Germany. J Invest Dermatol 123:584–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Williams CM, Bellucci KS, Liu V, Levins P (2006) Erythematous papular rash on the upper back area. Caterpillar dermatitis, or erucism. Arch Dermatol 142:1501–1506PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  229. Winker R, Salameh B, Stolkovich S et al (2009) Effectiveness of skin protection creams in the prevention of occupational dermatitis: results of a randomized, controlled trial. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 82:653–662PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  230. Wójcik-Fatla A, Cisak E, Chmielewska-Badora J et al (2006) Prevalence of Babesia microti in Ixodes ricinus ticks from Lublin region (eastern Poland). Ann Agric Environ Med 13:319–322PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  231. Woods B, Calnan CD (1976) Toxic woods. Br J Dermatol 94:1–97PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  232. Zafren K (2001) Poison oak dermatitis. Wilderness Environ Med 12:39–40PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  233. Zhioua E, Rodhain F, Binet P, Perez-Eid C (1997) Prevalence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in forestry workers of Ile de France, France. Eur J Epidemiol 13:959–962PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  234. Ziprkowski L, Rolant F (1972) Study of the toxin from poison hairs of Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni caterpillars. J Invest Dermatol 58(5):274–277PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  235. Zwoliński J, Chmielewska-Badora J, Cisak E et al (2004) Prevalence of antibodies to anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi in forestry workers from the Lublin region. Article in Polish. Wiad Parazytol 50:221–227PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dermatological PracticeD-74653 KuenzelsauGermany

Personalised recommendations