Effects of Biotin Deprivation and Biotin Supplementation

  • Krishnamurti Dakshinamurti
  • Shyamala Dakshinamurti
  • Michael P. CzubrytEmail author
Living reference work entry


A number of key carboxylase enzymes involved in metabolism depend upon the vitamin biotin for their structure and function. Humans and animals require biotin to be supplied in the diet. Biotin deficiency is relatively rare in the developed world and typically reflects consumption of egg white-enriched or ketogenic diets, whereas deficiency in underdeveloped countries is more likely to be due to biotin-poor diets. The effects of biotin deficiency are not typically life-threatening, but can lead to developmental delays in children, or hair and skin abnormalities in affected individuals. In contrast, biotin supplementation has been shown to provide salutary benefit in some individuals, such as diabetics. Here we examine the biochemistry of biotin, as well as the effects of biotin deficiency and supplementation, with a focus on human health.


Biotin Prosthetic group Carboxylases Multiple carboxylase deficiency Glucose metabolism Cell differentiation and proliferation Pancreatic inflammatory proteins Pharmacological effects 

List of Abbreviations


Acetyl-CoA carboxylase


Adenosine triphosphate


Holocarboxylase synthetase


β-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase


Multiple carboxylase deficiency


Pancreatitis-associated protein


Pyruvate carboxylase


Propionyl-CoA carboxylase


Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase


Sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Krishnamurti Dakshinamurti
    • 2
  • Shyamala Dakshinamurti
    • 3
  • Michael P. Czubryt
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, St. Boniface Hospital Albrechtsen Research CentreUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada
  2. 2.Department of Biochemistry and Medical GeneticsSt. Boniface Hospital Albrechtsen Research Centre, University of ManitobaWinnipegCanada
  3. 3.Departments of Pediatrics and Physiology, Biology of Breathing Group, Manitoba Institute of Child HealthUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada

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