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Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) of Malnutrition

  • Narayan Prasad
  • Archana Sinha
Living reference work entry

Abstract

Malnutrition is a highly prevalent and well-recognized problem in hospitalized as well as in general population but often goes unrecognized. Nutrition assessment is a comprehensive approach to define nutritional status using various methods. Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) is one of the most commonly used methods to assess nutritional status. SGA is a semiquantitative tool to assess nutritional status based on the history and physical examination. Data are scored subjectively and determine nutritional status in three major SGA categories as well nourished (A), mild to moderately malnourished (B), or severely malnourished (C). It is simple, noninvasive, inexpensive, and quickly executable and can be performed bedside by any skilled and trained health-care professional after brief training. It also agreeably goes with the objective methods of evaluating nutritional status. Various modified versions of SGA have been proposed since its conception to improve its precision. It helps in identifying malnutrition, predicting outcomes, and making appropriate recommendations in hospitalized patients as well as in general population.

Keywords

Malnutrition Subjective Global Assessment Nutritional status Hospitalization Mortality Morbidity Malnutrition and infection Malnutrition and inflammation Malnutrition in dialysis 

List of Abbreviations

ASPEN

American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition

BIA

Bioimpedance analysis

BMI

Body mass index

CANUSA

Canada-USA

CKD

Chronic kidney disease

DEXA

Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

DMS

Dialysis malnutrition score

ESPEN

European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism

ESRD

End-stage renal disease

KDOQI

Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative

MIS

Malnutrition-Inflammation Score

NKF

National Kidney Foundation

NRI

Hemodialysis

NRI

Nutritional Risk Index

PD

Peritoneal dialysis

PG-SGA

Patient-Generated-Subjective Global Assessment

SGA

Subjective Global Assessment

TIBC

Total iron-binding capacity

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NephrologySanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical SciencesLucknowIndia
  2. 2.Department of DieteticsSanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical SciencesLucknowIndia

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