Encyclopedia of Geochemistry

Living Edition
| Editors: William M. White

Ytterbium

  • J. H. L. Voncken
Living reference work entry

Latest version View entry history

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-39193-9_144-2

Element Data

Atomic Symbol: Yb

Atomic Number: 70

Atomic Weight: 173.054(5)

Isotopes and Abundances:168Yb 0.13 %, 170Yb 3.04 %, 171Yb 14.28 %, 172Yb 21.83 %, 173Yb 16.13 %, 174Yb 31.83 %, 176Yb 12.76 %

1 Atm Melting Point: 824 °C

1 Atm Boiling Point: 1196 °C

Common Valences: 3+, 2+

Ionic Radii: (3+) 4-fold 86.8 pm, 6-fold 92.5 pm, 8-fold 98.5 pm, (2+) 6-fold 108 pm, 8-fold 114 pm

Pauling Electronegativity: 1.1

First Ionization Energy: 603.435 kJ/mol

Chondritic (CI) Abundance: 161 ppb

Silicate Earth Abundance: 441 ppb

Crustal Abundance: 1.9 ppm

Seawater Abundance: ~0.17–1.2 ng/kg

Core Abundance: ~0

Properties

Ytterbium is a silvery-white metal, with a slight yellowish tinge (see Figure 1). Ytterbium is a lithophile element (McDonough and Sun, 1995). It is soft, malleable, and quite ductile. It is slowly oxidized by air. However, this oxide layer forms a protective layer on the surface, preventing complete oxidation (Emsley, 2011; Hammond, 2016).

Keywords

Carbon Capture Atomic Clock Condensation Temperature Geochemical Behavior Incompatible Trace Element 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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References

  1. Boynton, W. V., 1975. Fractionation in the solar nebula: condensation of yttrium and the rare earth elements. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 39(5), 569–584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Emsley, J., 2011. Nature’s Building Blocks. An A-Z Guide of the Elements. Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kindom, pp. 614–616.Google Scholar
  3. Hammond, C. R., 2016. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 96th Edition, 2015 – 2016. CRC Press. (Electronic edition), Boca Raton, FL, United States.Google Scholar
  4. Marignac, J. C. G., 1878. Sur l’ytterbine, nouvelle terre contenue dans la gadolinite. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences, LXXXVII, 578–581.Google Scholar
  5. McDonough, W. F., and Sun, S. S., 1995. The composition of the Earth. Chemical Geology, 120, 223–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Mori, Y., and Kobayashi, S., 2012. Organic synthesis. In Atwood, D. A. (ed.), The Rare Earth Elements: Fundamentals and Applications. Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, United States, pp. 452–453.Google Scholar
  7. NIST, 2013. Ytterbium Atomic Clocks Set Record for Stability. http://www.nist.gov/pml/div688/clock-082213.cfm. Accessed Mar 2016.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Department of Geosciences and Engineering, Section Resource EngineeringDelft University of TechnologyDelftThe Netherlands