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Pancreatic Islet Beta-Cell Replacement Strategies

  • J. Jason Collier
  • Susan J. Burke
Living reference work entry
Part of the Reference Series in Biomedical Engineering book series (RSBE)

Abstract

In this chapter, we outline some of the basic aspects of autoimmunity that leads to the loss of both function and quantity of pancreatic islet β-cells during progression to type 1 diabetes. Then we focus on strategies designed to promote replacement of pancreatic β-cells, either by whole pancreas or islet transplantation from cadaveric donors. In addition, approaches to engineer large populations of β-cells from embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells as a replacement alterative to cadaveric tissue are considered. Understanding the nuances of the endocrine lineage and its developmental features has been supported by mouse genetics, with results showing promise that other endocrine cell types can become “reprogrammed” into insulin-positive cells. Thus, at the present time, several distinct approaches have the potential to drive novel therapeutic interventions designed to replace β-cells lost due to autoimmune mechanisms. In an idyllic scenario, the best approach(es) will offer strong salutary benefit with reduced or no side effects, allowing for long-term (e.g., decades), if not permanent, functioning of the transplanted tissue. The ultimate goal is full correction of hyperglycemia with minimal potential for hypoglycemic events.

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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Basic Sciences/Islet BiologyPennington Biomedical Research CenterBaton RougeUSA
  2. 2.Basic Sciences/ImmunogeneticsPennington Biomedical Research CenterBaton RougeUSA

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