Primary and Secondary Prevention of Stroke

  • Nages Nagaratnam
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
  • Gary Cheuk
Reference work entry


The risk of first stroke and recurrence of stroke can be reduced by interventions that modify the treatable cardiovascular and cerebrovascular risk factors. The most important risk factor for stroke is age, and in both men and women, the stroke rate doubles for each successive 10 years after the age of 55. The risk factors for stroke may be different for the two sexes, ethnic groups and stroke subtypes. A proper understanding of the risk factors is essential for the primary prevention of stroke. Hypertension, congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease and atrial fibrillation are the four major risk factors apart from age. Atrial fibrillation (AF) becomes more prevalent with age in the general population, and the extent of stroke associated with AF increases with age. The present review will highlight the improvements that have occurred in the prevention of stroke.


Stroke Recurrence of stroke Risk factors for stroke Atrial fibrillation Anticoagulation 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nages Nagaratnam
    • 1
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
    • 1
  • Gary Cheuk
    • 2
  1. 1.The University of SydneyWestmead Clinical SchoolWestmeadAustralia
  2. 2.Rehabilitation and Aged Care ServiceBlacktown-Mt Druitt HospitalMount DruittAustralia

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