Shoulder pain is usually due to injury to one of the structures comprising the joint. The hip joint is a ball-and-socket joint and is formed by the articulation of the rounded head of the femur and the cup-like acetabulum formed by the union of three pelvic bones. A good history and physical examination usually determine the cause of the shoulder, hip and knee pain.
KeywordsShoulder pain Hip pain Knee pain Rotator cuff tears/strain Trendelenburg gait
- 2.Karnath B. Common musculoskeletal problems of the upper extremity. Hosp Physician. 2003. 48–52. www.turner-white.com.
- 3.Anderson BC. Evaluation of patient with shoulder complaints. http://www.update.com/contents/evaluation-of-the-patient-with-shoulder-complaints. Retrieved 4 May 2014.
- 4.Brookside Associates. Operational Medicine 2001 Shoulder joint pain. http://www.brooksidepress.org?Products/Operational.Google Scholar
- 5.Self EB. Clinical guidelines for shoulder pain. In Norris TR ed. Orthopaedic knowledge Update: Shoulder and Elbow 2.2nd Ed Rosemont III. American Academy of Orthpaedic Surgeons. 2002, 443–467.Google Scholar
- 9.Karnath B. Common musculoskeletal problems of the lower extremities. Hosp Physician. 2003. 24–29. www.turner-white.com.
- 13.Verril MM, Hall MN, Loven B. Evaluation of hip pain in older adults. Am Fam Physician. 2012 86(4): on line.Google Scholar
- 15.O’Kane JW. Anterior hip pain. Am J Physician. 1999;60:1686–96.Google Scholar
- 19.Kalb RL. Evaluation and treatment of hip pain. Hosp Pract. 1998; 33:131–2,135–6.Google Scholar
- 20.Boyajian-O’Neill LA, McClain RL, Coleman MK, Thomas PP. Diagnosis and Management of piriformis syndrome: An osteopathic appraisal. J Am Osteopath Ass. 208;1089 (11):867–884.Google Scholar
- 23.The Rubin Institute for Advanced Orthopedics (RIAO) Aging knee. http://www.lifebridgehealth.org/RIAO/AgingKnee.aspx. retrieved 5 May 2014.
- 24.Budoff JE, Nirschl RP. Knee problems: Diagnostic tests for ligament injuries. Consultant. 2013;53(9):629–632.Google Scholar
- 27.NHS National Institute of Clinical Excellence. http://www.nice.org.uk/media/94D/BE/Referral advice.pdf retrieved 5 May 2014.
- 28.Prevention, Care, Recovery. The Diagnosis and management of Soft Tissue Knee Injuries. Internal derangements. http://www.acc.co.nz/PRD_EXT_CSMO/groups/external_commnuications/documents/guide/wcmz002488.pdf. retreived 5 May 2014.
- 31.Helme RD, Gibson SJ. Pain in older people. In: Crombie IK, editor. Epidemiology of Pain. Seattle: IASP Press;1999.pp 103–112.Google Scholar