The Spine

  • Nages Nagaratnam
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
  • Gary Cheuk
Reference work entry

Abstract

The vertebral column consists of 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar and 5 sacral vertebrae (fused to form the sacrum) and 5 small vertebrae fused to form the coccyx. It radiates pain arising from the neck and low back and the spine. Common clinical syndromes associated with cervical spondylosis are myelopathy and radiculopathy and both syndromes are distinct. The prevalence of low back pain in the elderly is reported to range between 13 and 49%. The aetiology of back pain may be different in older people. As the patients get older, the diagnostic probabilities as to their prevalence change, such as malignancy/neoplasia, compression fractures, spinal stenosis and aortic aneurysms. Spinal stenosis due to hypertrophic degenerative processes and degenerative spondylolisthesis is more common in older people.

Keywords

Neck pain Low back pain Cervical spondylosis Myelopathy Radiculopathy Spinal stenosis 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nages Nagaratnam
    • 1
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
    • 1
  • Gary Cheuk
    • 2
  1. 1.The University of SydneyWestmead Clinical SchoolWestmeadAustralia
  2. 2.Rehabilitation and Aged Care ServiceBlacktown-Mt Druitt HospitalMount DruittAustralia

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