One of the most common reasons that adolescents are referred to mental health clinics (Frick and Silverthorn 2001) and residential treatment centers (Lynam and Campbell 1996) is for antisocial and aggressive behavior. Also, these behaviors are highly related to juvenile delinquency, which has very high costs for society. These costs include the high monetary costs associated with juvenile crime, the direct harm to victims of juvenile crime, and the reduction in the quality of life for those individuals who live in high-crime neighborhoods (Loeber and Farrington 2000). Finally, serious conduct problems in childhood predict later problems in adolescence and adulthood, including mental health problems (e.g., substance abuse), legal problems (e.g., risk for arrest), educational problems (e.g., school drop-out), social problems (e.g., poor marital adjustment), occupational problems (e.g., poor job performance), and physical health problems (e.g., poor respiratory function; Odgers...
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