Encyclopedia of Adolescence

2018 Edition
| Editors: Roger J. R. Levesque

Gender Identity Disorder

  • Allison Owen-Anderson
  • Kenneth J. Zucker
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-33228-4_288


Gender Identity Disorder (GID) has become an important area of research relating to adolescent development. This essay begins with a presentation of key terms that are necessary to understand this disorder. The discussion then focuses on the phenomenology of the disorder as it relates to adolescents, its developmental roots, diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, comorbidities, developmental trajectories, assessment, and treatment. The essay ends with a brief highlight of cutting-edge research in this area and promising directions in research and treatment.

Understanding Key Terminology

Understanding Gender Identity Disorder first requires clarifying definitions of terms typically used in this area of research and practice. The term “sex” refers to characteristics of biological maleness and femaleness. In humans, the most widely known attributes that comprise biological sex include the sex-determining genes, the sex chromosomes, the H-Y antigen, the gonads, sex hormones, the...

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© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Child, Youth, and Family Program, Gender Identity ServiceCentre for Addiction and Mental HealthTorontoCanada