Advertisement

Evolution of Symmetry in Plants

  • Catherine Damerval
  • Florian Jabbour
  • Sophie Nadot
  • Hélène L. Citerne
Living reference work entry

Abstract

Symmetry provides organisms with an efficient means to cope with physical constraints and explore three-dimensional space. We describe the diversity and evolution of symmetry types in the aerial parts of the major group of land plants, the angiosperms. Two main types of symmetry occur: bilateral symmetry, where structures can be divided into two mirror halves, and radial symmetry, with multiple planes of symmetry. Different organ arrangements or phyllotactic patterns produce different types of symmetry, which may vary within a plant’s life span. Leaves are usually flat bilaterally symmetrical organs with a bifacial organization resulting from an abaxial-adaxial differentiation associated with photosynthetic activity. Alterations in the genetic pathway underlying this asymmetry are thought to play a role in the repeated evolution of unifacial leaves. Flowers are composed of a series of organs that are considered to be highly modified leaves on a short compact axis. The symmetry of flowers as a whole is one of the most studied traits in plant evolutionary developmental genetics. Bilateral symmetry is derived from radial symmetry, probably from coevolution with specialized pollinators. Nearly 200 transitions in floral symmetry types have been recorded over the course of angiosperm evolution. Symmetry can change during flower development, and the timing of this change can vary between species. CYCLOIDEA-like transcription factors have been recruited repeatedly for the control of floral bilateral symmetry in angiosperms. The establishment of bilateral symmetry in leaves and flowers thus relies on different growth processes and gene networks.

Keywords

Symmetry Evo-devo Leaf Flower CYCLOIDEA 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We acknowledge Thierry Deroin for helpful discussions on flower anatomy and development and careful reading of the manuscript.

References

  1. Baxter CE, Costa MM, Coen ES (2007) Diversification and co-option of RAD-like genes in the evolution of floral asymmetry. Plant J 52:105–113CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Busch A, Zachgo S (2007) Control of corolla monosymmetry in the Brassicaceae Iberis amara. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:16714–16719CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Chartier M, Jabbour F, Gerber S, Mitteroecker P, Sauquet H, von Balthazar M, Staedler Y, Crane PR, Schönenberger J (2014) The floral morphospace – a modern comparative approach to study angiosperm evolution. New Phytol 204:841–853CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Citerne H, Jabbour F, Nadot S, Damerval C (2010) The evolution of floral symmetry. In: Kader JC, Delseny M (eds) Advances in botanical research, vol 54. Elsevier, London, pp 85–137Google Scholar
  5. Crepet WL, Niklas KJ (2009) Darwin’s second “abominable mystery”: why are there so many angiosperm species? Am J Bot 96:366–381CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Cubas P, Coen E, Zapater JM (2001) Ancient asymmetries in the evolution of flowers. Curr Biol 11:1050–1052CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Endress PK (1994) Diversity and evolutionary biology of tropical flowers. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  8. Endress PK (1999) Symmetry in flowers: diversity and evolution. Int J Plant Sci 160:S3–S23CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Fukushima K, Hasebe M (2014) Adaxial-abaxial polarity: the developmental basis of leaf shape diversity. Genesis 52:1–18CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Glover BJ, Martin C (2002) Evolution of adaptive petal cell morphology. In: Cronk QCB, Bateman RM, Hawkins JA (eds) Developmental genetics and plant evolution. Taylor & Francis, London, pp 160–172Google Scholar
  11. Harrison CJ, Cronk QCB, Hudson A (2002) An overview of seed plant leaf evolution. In: Cronk QCB, Bateman RM, Hawkins JA (eds) Developmental genetics and plant evolution. Taylor & Francis, London, pp 395–403Google Scholar
  12. Horn S, Pabón-Mora N, Theuß VS, Busch A, Zachgo S (2015) Analysis of the CYC/TB1 class of transcription factors in basal angiosperms and magnoliids. Plant J 81:559–571CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Howarth DG, Donoghue MJ (2006) Phylogenetic analysis of the “ECE” (CYC/TB1) clade reveals duplications predating the core eudicots. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:9101–9106CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Jabbour F, Damerval C, Nadot S (2008) Evolutionary trends in the flowers of Asteridae: is polyandry an alternative to zygomorphy? Ann Bot 102:153–165CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Mondragón-Palomino M, Theißen G (2011) Conserved differential expression of paralogous DEFICIENS- and GLOBOSA-like MADS-box genes in the flowers of Orchidaceae: refining the ‘orchid code’. Plant J 66:1008–1019CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. O’Meara B, Smith SD, Armbruster WS, Harder LD, Hardy CR, Hileman LC, Hufford L, Litt A, Magallón S, Smith SA, Stevens PF, Fenster CB, Diggle PK (2016) Non-equilibrium dynamics and floral trait interactions shape extant angiosperm diversity. Proc R Soc B 283:2015304Google Scholar
  17. Preston JC, Martinez CC, Hileman LC (2011) Gradual disintegration of the floral symmetry gene network is implicated in the evolution of a wind-pollination syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108:2343–2348CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Reardon W, Gallagher P, Nolan KM, Wright H, Cardeñosa-Rubio MC, Bragalini C, Lee C, Fitzpatrick DA, Corcoran K, Wolff K, Nugent JM (2014) Different outcomes of the MYB floral symmetry genes DIVARICATA and RADIALIS during the evolution of derived actinomorphy in Plantago. New Phytol 202:716–725CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Reyes E, Sauquet H, Nadot S (2016) Floral symmetry changed at least 199 times in angiosperms. Taxon 65:945–964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ren JB, Guo YP (2015) Behind the diversity: ontogenies of radiate, disciform, and discoid capitula of Chrysanthemum and its allies. J Syst Evol 53:520–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sassi M, Traas J (2015) When biochemistry meets mechanics: a systems view of growth control in plants. Curr Op Plant Biol 28:137–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Vincent CA, Coen ES (2004) A temporal and morphological framework for flower development in Antirrhinum majus. Can J Bot 82:681–690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Yamaguchi T, Yano S, Tsukaya H (2010) Genetic framework for flattened leaf blade formation in unifacial leaves of Juncus prismatocarpus. Plant Cell 22:2141–2155CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Yamaguchi T, Nukazuka A, Tsukaya H (2012) Leaf adaxial-abaxial polarity specification and lamina outgrowth: evolution and development. Plant Cell Physiol 53:1180–1194CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Zhong J, Kellogg EA (2015) Stepwise evolution of corolla symmetry in CYCLOIDEA2-like and RADIALIS-like genes expression patterns in Lamiales. Am J Bot 102:1260–1267CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Catherine Damerval
    • 1
  • Florian Jabbour
    • 2
  • Sophie Nadot
    • 3
  • Hélène L. Citerne
    • 1
  1. 1.GQE – Le Moulon, INRA, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS, AgroParisTech, Université Paris-SaclayGif-sur-YvetteFrance
  2. 2.Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Institut de Systématique, Evolution, Biodiversité, UMR 7205 ISYEB MNHN/CNRS/UPMC/EPHESorbonne UniversitésParisFrance
  3. 3.Laboratoire Ecologie, Systématique et EvolutionUMR 8079 Université Paris-Sud/CNRS/AgroParisTechOrsayFrance

Personalised recommendations