Diseases of Gypsophila

Living reference work entry
Part of the Handbook of Plant Disease Management book series (HPDM)


G. paniculata L (“baby’s breath”) is a worldwide crop mainly used as a filler cut flower. It is commercially propagated vegetatively to preserve the ornamental characteristics of the plant. Among fungal diseases caused by soilborne pathogens, Phytophthora species and Rhizoctonia solani, due to their irreversible rotting of plants, are the most devastating Gypsophila disease worldwide. Pythium species and R. solani are especially destructive in the process of rooting cuttings. In adult plants, Fusarium species produce rotting of basal tissues resulting in death. Powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe buhrii is important on aerial parts, producing in some countries nearly 100 % of disease incidence at harvest. Crown gall has been reported in all continents, and few viruses and nematodes are cited.


Gypsophila paniculata Phytophthora nicotianae = P. parasitica Rhizoctonia solani Powdery mildew Erysiphe buhrii Pythium root rot Fusarium stem rot Meloidogyne spp. 


  1. Abad ZG, Creswell T, Jones RK, Shew HD (1994) Occurrence of Phytophthora species on various hosts in North Carolina. Plant Dis 78(8):830. doi:10.1094/PD-78-0830CCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alfieri SA Jr, Langdon KR, Wehlburg C, Kimbrough JW (1984) Index of plant diseases in Florida (Revised). Florida Dept Agric Consumer Serv Div Plant Ind Bull 11:1–389Google Scholar
  3. Amano K (1986) Host range and geographical distribution of the powdery mildew fungi. Japan Scientific Societies Press, Tokyo, 471 ppGoogle Scholar
  4. Ann PJ, Liu SS (1993) Phytophthora wilt of baby’s breath. Plant Path Bull 2:106–110Google Scholar
  5. Ben Ze’ev I, Elkind G, Levy E (2006) Two Peronospora species causing downy mildew of Carnation and Gypsophila (Caryophyllaceae) in Israel. Phytoparasitica 34:265–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ben-Yephet Y, Nelson EB, Reuven M, Lampel M, Kogan N, Manulis S (1997) Identification of the Pythium species isolated from Gypsophila paniculata and other hosts in Israel. Phytoparasitica 25:250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bradbury JF (1986) Guide to plant pathogenic bacteria. CAB International Mycological Institute, Farnham Royal, Slough, 332 ppGoogle Scholar
  8. Braun U (1995) The powdery mildews (Erysiphales) of Europe. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Jena, 337 pp. Romania Turkey URSSGoogle Scholar
  9. Bueno CJ, Bettiol W, Mesa EM, Ceresini PC (2013) Report of Rhizoctonia solani AG-4 HG I on chrysanthemum (White and Yellow Papyrus) and R. solani AG-4 HG III on gypsophila in the São Paulo State, Brazil, and their cross pathogenicity. Summa Phytopathol 39(4):286–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cheong DC, Lim HC, Choi CH, Song YJ, Kim JM (2011) A new cultivar of Gypsophila paniculata with powdery mildew resistance and double florets of pink color, ‘Dream Pink’. J Hort Sci Technol 29(5):500–502Google Scholar
  11. Cho WD, Shin HD (eds) (2004) List of plant diseases in Korea, 4th edn. Korean Social of Plant Pathology, Seoul, 779 ppGoogle Scholar
  12. Choi IY, Kim BS, Cho SE, Park JH, Shin HD (2014) First report of powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe buhrii on Gypsophila paniculata in Korea. Plant Dis 98(7):1013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. CMI (1976) Distribution maps of plant diseases no. 411 (Edition 2). CAB International, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  14. Crous PW, Phillips AJL, Baxter AP (2000) Phytopathogenic fungi from South Africa. University of Stellenbosch, Department of Plant Pathology Press, Stellenbosch, 358 ppGoogle Scholar
  15. Deng S, Hiruki C (1991) Amplification of 16S rRNA genes from culturable and nonculturable mollicutes. J Microbiol Methods 14:53–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Elad Y et al (2014) Plant diseases in Israel. Available at Verified Jan 2016
  17. Engelhard AW (1974) A serious new crown rot and wilt of baby’s breath (Gypsophila paniculata) incited by Phytophthora parasitica. Plant Dis Rep 58:669–672Google Scholar
  18. Engelhard AW, Price JF, Overman AJ (1982) Disease control for Gypsophila (baby’s breath) in an integrated pest management program. Fla Ornamental Grow Assoc Newsletter 5(2):23Google Scholar
  19. Farr DF, Rossman AY (2016) Fungal databases, systematic mycology and microbiology laboratory, ARS, USDA. Available at Accessed Apr 2016
  20. Ferris H (1999) Heterodera schachtii. In: Ferris H. (ed) Nemaplex, “The nematode-plant expert information system, a virtual encyclopedia on soil and plant nematodes”. UC Davis Department of Entomology and Nematology. Available at Accessed Apr 2016
  21. Fillinger S, Elad Y (eds) (2016) Botrytis - the fungus, the pathogen and its management in agricultural systems. Springer International Publishing Switzerland, Cham. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-23371-0Google Scholar
  22. Forer LB, Stouffer RF (1982) Xiphinema spp. associated with tomato ringspot virus infection of Pennsylvania fruit crops. Plant Dis 66:735–736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Forsberg LI (1985) Phytophthora species on ornamental plants in Queensland. Australas Plant Pathol 14(1):18–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Francki RIB, Mossop DW, Hatta T (1979) Cucumber mosaic virus. CMI/AAB descriptions of plant viruses 213(6)Google Scholar
  25. Frezzi MJ (1956) Especies de Pythium fitopatógenas identificadas en la República Argentina. Rev Invest Agríc Buenos Aires 10:113–121Google Scholar
  26. Galindo C, Arbeláez G (1995) Control of basal stem rot of Gypsophila paniculata caused by Pythium sp. with three isolates of Trichoderma harzianum and with fungicides. Agron Colomb 12(2):134–141 (In Spanish)Google Scholar
  27. Gamliel A, Hadar E, Katan J (1993) Improvement of growth and yield of Gypsophila paniculata by solarization or fumigation of soil or container medium in continuous cropping systems. Plant Dis 77(9):933–938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Garcés De Granada E (1992) Consideraciones sobre Botrytis cinerea Pers., agente causal de la pudrición de las flores. Agron Colomb 9(2):196–201Google Scholar
  29. Garcés de Granada E, Orozco de Amézquita M, Saray P, Carvajal LM, Sarmiento CI (1994) Management of Pythium sp. and Rhizoctonia solani kuhn in rooting benches of Gypsophila paniculata L. Agron Colomb 11(2):158–163Google Scholar
  30. Garibaldi A, Rapetti S, Gullino ML, Bozzano G (1990) Diseases of flower and ornamental plants recently observed in Italy. Informatore Fitopatológico 40:9–15Google Scholar
  31. Gera A, Weintraub PG, Maslenin L, Spiegel S, Zeidan M (2007) A new disease causing stunting and shoot proliferation in Gypsophila is associated with phytoplasma. Bull Insectol 60:271–272Google Scholar
  32. Goff CC (1936) Relative susceptibility of some annual ornamentals to root-knot nematodes, vol 291, Bulletin. University of Florida Agricultural Experiments Station, Gainesville, 15 ppGoogle Scholar
  33. Gould AB (2012) Disease control recommendations for ornamental crops. New Jersey agricultural experiment station bulletin E036. New Jersey. Available at Verified 13 Jan 2016
  34. Haas JH, Moore LW, Ream W, Manulis S (1995) Universal PCR primers for detection of phytopathogenic Agrobacterium strains. Appl Environ Microbiol 61:2879–2884PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Hayward AC, Waterston JM (1965) Agrobacterium tumefaciens, vol 42, CMI descriptions of plant pathogenic fungi and bacteria. CAB, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  36. Jin JH, Gyu KW, Yeong KJ, Eon LS (1998) Unrecorded Phytophthora diseases of flowering plants caused by Phytophthora nicotianae in Korea. Korean J Plant Pathol 14(5):452–457Google Scholar
  37. Kado CI (2010) Plant bacteriology. APS Press, The American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, 336 ppGoogle Scholar
  38. Kahn RP (1956) Seed transmission of the tomato-ringspot virus in the Lincoln variety of soybeans. Phytopathology 46:295–295Google Scholar
  39. Kaminska M, Malinowski T, Komorowska B, Rudzinska-Langwald A (1996) Etiology of yellows and witches’ broom symptoms in some ornamental plants. Acta Hortic. doi:10.17660/ActaHortic.1996.432.11Google Scholar
  40. Kang MH, Cheong DC, Choi CH, Kim HM (2009) Disease incidence of major cut-flowers growing in subalphine regions of Jeonbuk province. J Agric Life Sci 40(2):26–31Google Scholar
  41. Kang MH, Cheong DC, Choi CH, Lim HC, Song YJ, Kim HM (2012) The control of powdery mildew of Gypsophila (Gypsophila paniculata) and Statice (Limonium hybrida) by using biocompatible products in the greenhouse. J Agric Life Sci 43(2):28–31Google Scholar
  42. Keay MA (1937) An undescribed species of Sclerotinia. J de Botanique 75(893):130–132Google Scholar
  43. Koenig R, Lesemann D-E, Pfeilstetter E (2009) New isolates of carnation Italian ringspot virus differ from the original one by having replication-associated proteins with a typical tombusvirus-like N-terminus and by inducing peroxisome- rather than mitochondrion-derived multivesicular bodies. Arch Virol 154:1695–1698CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Koike ST, Wilen CA, Raabe RD, McCain AH, Grebus (2009) Gypsophila (Gypsophila paniculata) disease control outlines. In: UC Pest management guidelines, floriculture and ornamental nurseries. Accesed Apr 2016
  45. Kröber H (1971) Crown rot of Gypsophila paniculata L caused by Phytophthora cryptogea Pethybr. E. Laff. Nachrichtenbl Dtsch Pflanzenschutzdienst 23:74–77 (In German)Google Scholar
  46. Lee HB, Kim CJ, Mun HY, Choi HS, Lee YH, Yun HO (2011) First report of crown rot on gypsophila (Gypsophila paniculata) caused by Fusarium proliferatum in Korea. Plant Dis 95:220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Manulis S, Barash I (2003) Pantoea agglomerans pv. gypsophilae and betae, recently evolved pathogens? Mol Plant Pathol 4:307–314CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Manulis S, Kogan N, Valinsky L, Dror O, Kleitman F (1998) Detection of Erwinia herbicola pv. gypsophilae in gypsophila plants by PCR. Eur J Plant Pathol 104:85–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Margina AF, Bobev SG, de Gruyter J (1999) First occurrence of Alternaria alternata on Gypsophila paniculata in Bulgaria. Plant Dis 83(12):1176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Matsuura S (1997) Controlling effect of the fungicides on powdery mildew of Gypsophila. Proc Kansai Pl Prot 39:49–50 (In Japanese)Google Scholar
  51. Mc Sorley R (1994) Susceptibility of common bedding plants to root-knot nematodes. Proc 17a Slate I-loot Soc 107:430–432Google Scholar
  52. Michigan State University. Diagnostic services. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Accessed Apr 2016
  53. Morita S, Kikuchi T (1996) Identification and chemical control of newly occurring powdery mildew fungus on baby’s breath, Gypsophila paniculata L., in Oita prefecture (Japan). Proc Assoc Plant Protect Kyushu 42:48–54. Accessed Apr 2016
  54. Nelson PE, Pennypaker BW, Toussoun TA, Horst RK (1975) Fusarium stub dieback of carnation. Phytopathology 65:575–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Northover P (2007) Symptomology, agronomy, and economic considerations in aster yellows management. Retrieved from: Accessed Apr 2016
  56. Ojeda MS, Zak LF (1993) Etiología de la pudrición del cuello de la gipsofila (Gypsophila paniculata) en Tepeji del Río, Hidalgo, México. Rev Mex Micol 9:169–171Google Scholar
  57. Orlikowski LB, Wojdyla A, Skrzypc Zak C (1991) Diseases of Gypsophila paniculata in Poland and their control. 1. Stem rot of Gypsophila paniculata incited by Phytophthora nicotianae var. nicotianae and Fusarium culmorum. Prace Institutu Sadownictwa i Kwiaciarstwaw Skierniewicach. Seria B 16:157–162Google Scholar
  58. Palukaitis P, Roossinck MJ, Dietzgen RG, Francki RI (1992) Cucumber mosaic virus. Adv Virus Res 41:281CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Park HS, Choi JK (2009) Characterization of cucumber mosaic virus Isolated from Gypsophila paniculata. J Agric Life Sci 21:51–58. Michigan State University (2016). Available at Accessed Apr 2016Google Scholar
  60. Pensec F, Marmonier A, Marchal A, Gersch S, Nassr N, Chong J, Henry M, Demangeat G, Bertsch C (2013) Gypsophila paniculata root saponins as an environmentally safe treatment against two nematodes, natural vectors of grapevine fanleaf degeneration. Aust J Grape Wine Res 19:439–445Google Scholar
  61. Puma Quinchuango LM (2010) Eficiencia del ácido ascórbico, ácido salicílico y extracto de Dulcamara (Bryophyllum gastonis B.) en la prevención de Mildeo velloso (Peronospora pulverulenta) en Gypsophila (Gypsophila paniculata) variedad Party Time. Tesis de pregrado. Universidad Politécnica Saleciana, Cayambe. Accessed Apr 2016
  62. Putnam ML, Miller ML (2007) Rhodococus fascians in herbaceous perennials. Plant Dis 91:1064–1076CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Rist DL, Lorbeer JW (1991) Relationships of weed reservoirs of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and broad bean wilt virus (BBWV) to CMV and BBWV in commercial lettuce field in New York. Phytopathology 81:367–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rosenberger DA, Harrison MB, Gonsalves D (1983) Incidence of apple union necrosis and decline, Tomato ringspot virus, and Xiphinema vector species in Hudson Valley orchards. Plant Dis 67(4):356–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Saira Shahzad SA, Anwar N, Javed S, Sahi T (2010) Nematodes associated with ornamental shrubs. In: Abstracts of the 30th Pakistan congress of zoology, Faisalabad, Mar 2010, p 185Google Scholar
  66. Samuitiené M, Navalinskienné M (2001) Nepoviruses and their influence on field floriculture. Biologija 4:43–45Google Scholar
  67. Schaad NW, Jones JB, Chun W (eds) (2001) Laboratory guide for identification of plant pathogenic bacteria, 3rd edn. APS Press, St. Paul, 373 ppGoogle Scholar
  68. Sekiyama K, Venatsu S (1992) Phytophthora rot of baby’s breath (Gypsophila paniculata L.), caused by Phytophthora nicotianae var. parasitica and its chemical control. Proc Kanto Tosan Plant Protect Soc 39:157–160Google Scholar
  69. Servazzi O (1942) Brief notes on some uncommon fungal diseases of ornamental plants (in Italian). Boll Lab Sper R Ossv Fitopat 18(1–4):86–112Google Scholar
  70. Simmons EG (2007) Alternaria. An identification manual. CBS Biodivers Ser 6:1–775Google Scholar
  71. Simonyan SA (1981) Mycoflora of botanical gardens and arboreta in Armenia. Armenian SSR, Hayka, 232 ppGoogle Scholar
  72. Sivan A, Elad Y, Chet I (1984) Biological control effects of a new isolate of Trichoderma harzianum on Pythium aphanidermatum. Phytopathology 74(4):498–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Southey JF (1993) Nematode pest of ornamental and bulbs crops. In: Evans K, Trudgill DL, Webster JM (eds) Plant parasitic nematodes in temperate agriculture. CAB International, Wallingford, pp 463–499Google Scholar
  74. Thompson AH, Nauda SP (1992) Report of phytophthora crown rot of baby's breath (Gypsophila paniculata L.) from South Africa. Phytophylactica 24:349–450Google Scholar
  75. USDA (1960) Index of plant diseases in the United States, vol 165, US Dept of Agriculture Handbook. Crops Research Division, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  76. USDA, ARS, U.S. National fungus collections (BPI) (1946) Alternaria dianthi. Accessed Apr 2016
  77. Van der Plaats-Niterink AJ (1981) Monograph of the genus Pythium, vol 21, Studies in mycology. Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Baarn, 242 ppGoogle Scholar
  78. Vigodsky-Haas H, Farkash E, Sharoni M (1979) Pythium disease in Gypsophila and trials for its control. Hasadesh 59(9):1941–1946Google Scholar
  79. Werner M (1997) Pathogenicity of isolates of Phytophthora nicotianiae var. nicotianae and Rhizoctonia solani obtained from Gypsophila paniculata towards carnation. Roksniki Akademii Rolnizej w Poznaniu. O Grodnctwo 27:137–143Google Scholar
  80. Werner M, Antkowiak W (2002) Evaluation of health state and growth of Gypsophila paniculata L. and Gypsophila repens L. growing in soil in variable fertilization. Acta Agrobotánica 55(1):367–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Wick RL, Rane KK, Sutton DP (1987) Two new ornamental hosts for Phytophthora cactorum: Trachymene caerulea and Gypsophila paniculata. Plant Dis 71:281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Wilcken SRS, Ferraz LCCB (1998) Reprodução de espécies de Meloidogyne e Pratylenchus (Nemata: Tylenchoidea) em diferentes tipos de plantas ornamentais. Summa Phytopathol 24:171–176Google Scholar
  83. Wolcan S, Ronco L (2003) Occurrence of Erysiphe buhrii on Gypsophila paniculata in Argentina. New Dis Rep 8:23. Accessed Apr 2016Google Scholar
  84. Wolcan SM, Ronco L, Lori GA (2007) Basal rots of Gypsophila paniculata (Caryophylaceae) in Argentina. Causal agents and their potential pathogenicity on Dianthus caryophyllus (Caryophylaceae). Bol Soc Argent Bot 42:159–167 (In Spanish)Google Scholar
  85. Woudenberg JHC, Groenewald JZ, Binder M, Crous PW (2013) Alternaria redefined. Stud Mycol 75(171–212):193–195Google Scholar

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centro de Investigaciones de Fitopatología (CIDEFI–UNLP–CICBA), Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y ForestalesUniversidad Nacional de La PlataLa PlataArgentina
  2. 2.Comisión de Investigaciones Científicas de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (CICBA)La PlataArgentina
  3. 3.Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Tecnológicas (CONICET)Buenos AiresArgentina
  4. 4.Cátedra de Fitopatología, Facultad de Ciencias AgrariasUniversidad Nacional de RosarioZavallaArgentina
  5. 5.Cátedra de Horticultura, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y ForestalesUniversidad Nacional de La PlataLa PlataArgentina

Personalised recommendations