Advertisement

Heat and Mass Transfer Processes in the Eye

  • Arunn NarasimhanEmail author
Living reference work entry

Later version available View entry history

Abstract

Heat and mass transport processes in humans occur at cellular, tissue, organ, and whole-body levels. The subfield of heat and mass transfer in the human eye provides the context for understanding the functions of the eye and to develop protective, diagnostic, and therapeutic processes. The eye is sensitive to the environment because of the absence of blood flow through parts such as cornea and lens, and the absence of thermal sensors and protective reflexes beyond blinking. Heat transfer processes in the eye comprise the continuous evaporation of the tear layer coating the corneal region of a normal eye, the thermal massage across the pupils called the transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT), and the several methods of internal tissue ablation involving lasers. Drug delivery inside the eye is an important man-made mass transfer process that includes the intravitreous and transscleral routes to medicate the retina. This chapter focuses on the exposition of heat transfer processes that drive laser surgical methods and the mass transfer processes that govern drug delivery methods to the retina. In a bridging section, discussion on the combined heat and mass transfer processes involved in the TTT-based convection-assisted drug diffusion to the retina through the vitreous humor is also provided.

References

  1. Abouali O, Modareszadeh A, Ghaffariyeh A, Tu J (2012) Numerical simulation of the fluid dynamics in vitreous cavity due to saccadic eye movement. Med Eng Phys 34(6):681–692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arifin Y, Lee LY, Wang CH (2006) Mathematical modeling and simulation of drug release from microspheres: implications to drug delivery systems. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 58:1274–1325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Balachandran RK, Barocas VH (2008) Computer modeling of drug delivery to the posterior eye: effect of active transport and loss to choroidal blood flow. Pharm Res 25(11):2685–2696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Behar-Cohen FF, El Aouni A, Gautier S, Daivd G, Davis S, Chapon P, Parel JM (2002) Transscleral coulomb-controlled iontophoresis of methylprednisolone into the rabbit eye: influence of duration of treatment, current intensity and drug concentration on ocular tissue and fluid levels. Exp Eye Res 74:51–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blankenstein MF, Zuclich J, Allen RG (1986) Retinal hemorrhage thresholds for Q-switched neodymium-YAG laser exposures. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 27:1176–1179Google Scholar
  6. Boettner EA, Wolter JR (1962) Transmission of the ocular media. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1:776–783Google Scholar
  7. Brinkmann R, Koinzer S, Kerstin S, Ptaszynski L, Bever M, Baade A, Luft S, Miura Y, Roider J, Birngruber R (2012) Real-time temperature determination during retinal photocoagulation on patients. J Biomed Opt Spec Sect Photoacoust Imaging Sens 17(6):061219Google Scholar
  8. Cain CP, Toth CA, DiCarlo CD (1995) Visible retinal lesions from ultrashort laser pulses in the primate eye. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 36:879–888Google Scholar
  9. Chew TKP, Wong JS, Chee KLC, Tock PCE (2000) Corneal transmissibility of diode versus argon lasers and their photothermal effects on 20 the cornea and iris. Clin Exp Ophthalmol 28:53–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Efron N, Young G, Brennan N (1989) Ocular surface temperature. Curr Eye Res 8(9):901–906Google Scholar
  11. Flyckt VMM, Raaymakers BW, Lagendijk JJW (2006) Modelling the impact of blood flow on temperature distribution in the human eye and the orbit: fixed heat transfer coefficients versus the Pennes bioheat model versus discrete blood vessels. Phys Med Biol 51:5007–5021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fraunfelder FW (2008) Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy for surface eye disease (an AOS thesis). Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 106:301–324Google Scholar
  13. Gerstman BS, Glickman RD (1999) Activated rate processes and a specific biochemical mechanism for explaining delayed laser induced thermal damage to the retina. J Biomed Opt 4:345–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Glickman R, Sowell RD, Lam K-W (1993) Kinetic properties of light-dependent ascorbic acid oxidation by melanin. Free Radic Biol Med 15:513–547Google Scholar
  15. Goldman A, Ham WJ, Mueller HA (1975) Mechanisms of retinal damage resulting from the exposure of rhesus monkeys to ultrashort laser pulses. Exp Eye Res 21:457–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jobling AI, Guymer RH, Vessey KA, Greferath U, Mills SA, Brassington KH, Luu CD, Aung KZ, Trogrlic L, Plunkett M, Fletcher EL (2015) Nanosecond laser therapy reverses pathologic and molecular changes in age-related macular degeneration without retinal damage. FASEB J 29:696–710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kohtiao A, Resnick I, Newton J, Schwell H (1966) Threshold lesions in rabbit retinas exposed to pulsed laser radiation. Am J Ophthalmol 62:664–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kumar S, Acharya S, Beuerman R, Palkama A (2005) Numerical solution of ocular fluid dynamics in a rabbit eye: parametric effects. Ann Biomed Eng 34(3):530–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lafond G, Boucher MC, Labelle P, Dumas J (2003) The effects of laser panretinal photocoagulation on cone, rod and oscillatory potentials responses in proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 44:3986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lee TW, Robinson JR (2004) Drug delivery to the posterior segment of the eye II: development and validation of a simple pharmacokinetic model for subconjunctival injection. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 20:43–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Macular Photocoagulation Study Group (1986) Recurrent choroidal neovascularization after argon laser photocoagulation for neovascular maculopathy. Arch Ophthalmol 104(4):503–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mapstone R (1968) Measurement of corneal temperature. Exp Eye Res 7:237–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Meyer-Schwickerath G (1954) Light coagulation; a method for treatment and prevention of the retinal detachment. Albrecht Von Graefes Arch Ophthalmol 156(1):2–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Meyer-Schwickerath G (1956) Prophylactic treatment of retinal detachment by light-coagulation. Trans Ophthalmol Soc U K 76:739–750Google Scholar
  25. Narasimhan A (2012) Essentials of heat and fluid flow in porous media. CRC Press, New YorkzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  26. Narasimhan A, Jha KK (2012) Bio-heat transfer simulation of retinal laser irradiation. Int J Numer Method Biomed Eng 28(5):547–559CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  27. Narasimhan A, Jha KK (2015) Convection-enhanced intravitreous drug delivery in human eye. J Heat Transf 137(12):121003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Narasimhan A, Ramanathan VG (2012) Effect of choroidal blood flow on transscleral retinal drug delivery using a porous medium model. Int J Heat Mass Transf 55(21):5665–5672Google Scholar
  29. Narasimhan A, Sundarraj C (2013) Effect of choroidal blood perfusion and natural convection in vitreous humor during transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT). Int J Numer Method Biomed Eng 29(4):530–541MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Narasimhan A, Sundarraj C (2016) Experimental study of convection-assisted intravitreal drug delivery. J Therm Biol (under review)Google Scholar
  31. Narasimhan A, Jha KK, Gopal L (2010) Transient simulations of heat transfer in human eye undergoing laser surgery. Int J Heat Mass Transf 53(1–4):482–490CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  32. Ooi E, Ng E (2008) Simulation of aqueous humor hydrodynamics in human eye heat transfer. Comput Biol Med 38(2):252–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Pennes HH (1948) Analysis of tissue and arterial blood temperature in the resting human forearm. J Appl Physiol 1(2):93–122Google Scholar
  34. Ranta VP, Urtti A (2006) Transscleral drug delivery to the posterior eye: prospects of pharmacokinetic modeling. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 58(1):1164–1181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Repetto R, Siggers JH, Stocchino A (2010) Mathematical model of flow in the vitreous humor induced by saccadic eye rotations: effect of geometry. Biomech Model Mechanobiol 9(1):65–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Robinson MR (2006) A rabbit model for assessing the ocular barriers to the transscleral delivery of triamcinolone acetonide. Exp Eye Res 82(3):479–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Roegener J, Brinkmann R, Lin C (2004) Pump-probe detection of laser-induced microbubble formation in retinal pigment epithelium cells. J Biophys Opt 9:367–371Google Scholar
  38. Sramek C, Paulus Y, Nomoto H, Huie P, Brown J, Palanker D (2009) Dynamics of retinal photocoagulation and rupture. J Biomed Opt 14(3):034007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Stay MS, Xu J, Randolf TW, Barocas VH (2006) Computer simulation of convective and diffusive transport of controlled-release drugs in the vitreous humor. Pharm Res 20(1):96–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Szabó A, Varga V, Toimela T, Hiitelä K, Tähti H, Oja SS, Süveges I, Salminen L (2004) Laser treatment of cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells-evaluation of the cellular damage in vitro. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 20(3):246–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Thompson CR, Gerstman BS, Jacques SL, Rogers ME (1996) Melanin granule model for laser-induced thermal damage in the retina. Bull Math Biol 58(3):513–553CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  42. Wang J, Chung JL, Schuele G, Vankov A, Dalal R, Wiltberger M, Palanker D (2015) Safety of cornea and iris in ocular surgery with 355-nm lasers. J Biomed Opt 20(9):095005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wolbarsht M, Landers BM (1980) The rationale of photocoagulation therapy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy: a review and a model. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers 11(4):235–243Google Scholar
  44. Wyatt HJ (1996) Ocular pharmacokinetics and conventional flow. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 12:441–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Xu J, Heys JJ, Barocas VH, Randolph TW (2000) Permeability and diffusion in vitreous humor: implications for drug delivery. Pharm Res 17(6):664–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Yoshida A, Ishiko S, Kojima M (1992) Outward permeability of the blood-retinal barrier. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 230:78–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Heat Transfer and Thermal Power LaboratoryIndian Institute of Technology MadrasChennaiIndia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Ram Devireddy
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical and Industrial EngineeringLouisiana State UniversityBaton RougeUSA

Personalised recommendations