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Bioinformatics constitute a specialty in the informatics domain that applies information technologies (IT) to the study of human biology. Having its basis in the study of genotypes and phenotypes, the bioinformatics domain is extensive, encompassing genomics, metagenomics, proteomics, pharmacogenomics, and metabolomics. With advances in IT-supported data storage and management, very large data sets (Big Data) have become available from diverse sources at greatly accelerated rates, providing unprecedented opportunities to engage in increasingly more sophisticated biological data analytics.
Although the formal study of biology has its origins in the seventeenth century CE, the application of computer science to biological research is relatively recent. In 1953, the Watson and Crick published the DNA structure. In 1975, Sanger and the team of Maxam and Gilbert independently developed DNA sequences. In 1980, the US Supreme Court ruled that patents on genetically modified...