Post-hemorrhagic Hydrocephalus in Prematures

Surgical Indications, Techniques, Complications, and Outcome
  • Christian Sainte-RoseEmail author
  • Alessia Imperato
Living reference work entry


Currently, there is still no consensus over the optimal treatment of hydrocephalus occurring as a result of germinal matrix hemorrhage among premature infants. Different temporizing measures have been attempted overtime to delay a more invasive approach, but no one has proven its superiority. In spite of a well standardized technique and various types of shunt available, different factors contribute the high rate of ventriculo-peritoneal shunt failure. On the other side, neuroendoscopic techniques have proved notable when performed both in combination to shunt systems or later on in the natural history in case of shunt malfunction. Regarding outcome, different studies are difficult to compare because of heterogeneity of care provided, severity of the lesions, and treatment policies. However, PHH has been shown to result in a threefold increase in cognitive and psychomotor delay. The present study represents only a current snapshot of the existing literature and does not replace the need for a prospective randomized study.


Germinal matrix Intraventricular hemorrhage Cerebrospinal fluid Hydrocephalus Premature Ventriculo-peritoneal shunt Endoscopic third ventriculostomy Ventriculo-subgaleal shunt Neurodevelopmental outcome Cerebral palsy 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pediatric NeurosurgeryHôpital Necker des Enfants MaladesParisFrance
  2. 2.NeurosurgeryIRCCS Neuromed PozzilliPozzilliItaly

Section editors and affiliations

  • Pietro Spennato
    • 1
  1. 1.Departmen of Pediatric Neurosurgery“Santobono” Children’s HospitalNaplesItaly

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